Microphone Characteristics

 

A microphone is a transducer that converts acoustic energy into electric energy.

 

The two most common types of microphones are:

Dynamic Microphones

Condenser Microphones

 

 

 

Dynamic Microphones

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.     Sound waves strike the diaphragm.

2.     Diaphragm vibrates in response.

3.     The voice coil, attached with the diaphragm, vibrates with it.

4.     The voice coil is surrounded by a magnetic field created by the magnet.

5.     The motion of the voice coil in this magnetic field generates the electrical signal.

 

 

Condenser Microphones

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


1.     Sound waves strike the diaphragm.

2.     Diaphragm vibrates in response, changing the space between itself and the metal or metal-coated-ceramic backplate.

3.     The variation of this spacing, due to the motion of the diaphragm relative to the backplate, produces the electrical signal.

 

 

 

Electrical Impedance / Low-Z & High-Z Mics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Directionality: Pickup Pattern

 

      Omnidirectional

      Bidirectional

      Unidirectional (Cardioid)

1.    Cardioid

2.    Super Cardioid

3.    Hyper Cardioid

 

 

Omnidirectional Mics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bidirectional Mics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unidirectional Mics: Cardioid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unidirectional Mics: Super/Hyper Cardioid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Frequency Response

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comparison: Dynamic vs Condenser in frequency response: