Jeffery J. Jensen, PE

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
4505 S Maryland Pkwy
Box 454015
Las Vegas NV 89154-4015

Email: jefferyjjensen@gmail.com
Mobile: 702-327-9294
CEE 498 Civil Engineering Capstone Design

### Instructor - Jeff Jensen

#### Location: UNLV TBE-B367

Week Dates Lecture/Lab Topics Lecture Homework Textbook Reading
Elementary Surveying by Ghilani and Wolf
Surveying & Layout DVD
Quizes
1 23 Aug 2010 - Monday Syllabus HW01 Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 1 Basic Measurement
1 25 Aug 2010 - Wednesday Objective - students can properly setup a tripod
Instrument Setup
Automatic Levels
Tripods
Theodolites
Angles
Chapter 1 - Definition of Surveying, Geodetic Surveys, Plane Surveys
HW02 Chapter 2 - Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes
Quiz Chapter 1
2 30 Aug 2010 - Monday Field Exercise - Tripod Setup
Chapter 2 - Significant Figures, Surveying Parties/Groups
Calculators
Field Notes - Data Collectors - TSC2 (Survey Controller and Calculator)
HW03 Chapter 4 - Leveling - Theory, Methods, and Equipment
Chapter 2 Instrument Level
2 1 Sept 2010 - Wednesday Field Notes - Pacing and Chaining/Steel Tape
Measuring Distances using Pacing
Measuring Distances using a Steel Tape/Chaining
HW04 Chapter 5 - Leveling - Field Procedures and Computations
Chapter 3 Leveling Method
3 6 Sept 2010 - Monday
• Holiday - Labor Day
•
3 8 Sept 2010 - Wednesday Similar Triangles
HW05 Chapter 6 - Distance Measurement
Chapter 17 - Mapping Surveys
Quiz Chapter 2 and 3
4 13 Sept 2010 - Monday Field Notes
Compass Rule Appendix A - Theodolite Setup Procedure to measure horizontal angles
Compass Rule continue - Excel
AutoCAD Civil 3D - Drafting a Closed Traverse Compass Rule continue
Compass Rule continue - Excel
HW06   Chapter 4 Digital Transit
4 15 Sept 2010 - Monday Project Research by Guest Speaker - Vern Little, PLS
Boundary Surveys
Field Exercise: Determine Finish Floor Elevation of Artemus Ham Concert Hall (HCH)
HW07 Chapter 10 - Traverse Computations
Chapter 21 - Boundary Surveys
Quiz Chapter 4
5 20 Sept 2010 - Monday Chapter 12 - Area (Dr. Shahid Islam)
Field Exercise: Total Stations
Using Sokkia SET6 Total Station
Sokkia SET6 Total Station and Trimble TSC2 Data Collector
Prisms
HW08 Chapter 12 Area
Chapter 5 - Control Lines, Back-Sight Lines & Building Layout
5 22 Sept 2010 - Wednesday Public Land Survey System (PLSS) by Steve Youngberg, PLS
Field Exercise: Sokkia SET6 Total Station Cont.
Sokkia SET6 Total Station and Trimble TSC2 Data Collector
HW09 Chapter 22 Surveys of the Public Lands
Chapter 6 - Batter Boards & Structural Layout
6 27 Sept 2010 - Monday Chapter 18 - Chapter 18 Mapping
Topographic Map of UNLV Campus
AutoCAD Civil 3D - How to Label the Northing and Eastings of a Line
HW10 Chapter 18 Mapping   Reading Assignment   Quiz Chapter 5 and 6
6 29 Sept 2010 - Wednesday GNSS/GPS Overview
Ellipsoid
Geoid
Datums
State Plane Coordinate System
Field Exercise: GPS
HW11 Chapter 20 State Plane Coordinates
Chapter 7: Field Calibrations & Interior Partition Layout for a level and theodolite
7 4 Oct 2010 - Monday Kinematic GPS
Field Exercise: GPS and Robotics - Bill Desjardins with Monsen Engineering
HW12 Chapter 15 Kinematic GPS
Quiz Chapter 7
7 6 Oct 2010 - Wednesday Final Exam Review
Matrices
Field Exercise: Tripod setup over a monument in under 5 minutes
Chapter 8: Total Stations & EDM Total Station Set-Up
8 11 Oct 2010 - Monday Horizontal Curves
Traverse - Calculate Azimuth and Bearings Field Exercise: Robotics (Guest Speaker Mark Cormier (markc@vtnnv.com) voice: 702-253-2427 AutoCAD - Drafting a Traverse Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Angles
Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Traversing
HW13 Chapter 24 Horizontal Curves
Quiz Chapter 8
8 13 Oct 2010 - Wednesday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

9 18 Oct 2010 - Monday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

9 20 Oct 2010 - Wednesday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

10 25 Oct 2010 - Monday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

10 27 Oct 2010 - Wednesday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

11 1 Nov 2010 - Monday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

11 3 Nov 2010 - Wednesday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

12 8 Nov 2010 - Monday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

12 10 Nov 2010 - Wednesday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

13 15 Nov 2010 - Monday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

13 17 Nov 2010 - Wednesday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

14 22 Nov 2010 - Monday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

14 24 Nov 2010 - Wednesday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

15 29 Nov 2010 - Monday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

15 1 Dec 2010 - Wednesday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

16 6 Dec 2010 - Monday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

16 8 Dec 2010 - Wednesday Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
-NGS Data Sheets
Topographic Maps
Legal Descriptions
HW14 Chapter 19 Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Chapter 21 Boundary Surveys

Topics Not Covered
Traverse - Calculate Azimuth and Bearings
Vertical Curves
Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Coordinate Geometry
Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 GPS Principles
Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 GPS Static Surveys
Scott Hill with TRC, GPS Lecture Notes TRC-GPS-Lecture-UNLV.pdf
Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 Mapping Surveys
Chapter 25 - Chapter 25 Vertical Curves
Chapter 26 - Chapter 26 Volumes
Chapter 20 - Chapter 20 State Plane Coordinates
-Scale Factors Trimble TSC2

1. Syllabus
2. Survey Lecture Notes and Topics

## Instructor Biography

#### CEE 121 Teaching Assistant

• Steven Youngberg, PLS, (Spring 2010, Summer 2010) email: slyoungberg@cox.net
• Scott Hill, PLS, (Spring 2010) email: shill@trcsolutions.com, work: 702-248-6415
• Dr. Mohammad Shahidul Islam, (Summer 2010) email: shahidul92@hotmail.com, voice: 702-406-0418
• Sang In Choi, (Spring 2010, Summer 2010) email: choi_sangin@yahoo.com, voice: 702-556-1721
• Humberto "Bert" Franco (Fall 2010, Summer 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012), email: Franco.Humberto@hotmail.com, mobile: 702-340-8177
• Steven Preston (Spring 2012) email: prestons@unlv.nevada.edu
• Blake Naccarato, (Fall 2010) email: blake.naccarato@gmail.com

#### CEE 301 Teaching Assistant

• Humberto "Bert" Franco (Fall 2011), email: Franco.Humberto@hotmail.com, mobile: 702-340-8177
• Ernie Mejia (Spring 2011), ernie_m@hotmail.com, mobile: 702-683-9854
• Terri Bray (Fall 2010), bbterri728@hotmail.com, voice: 702-481-4206
• Nesley Orochena (Fall 2010), email: orochena_nesley@yahoo.com, voice: 702-401-0022
• Former Assistants
• Sang In Choi, email: choi_sangin@yahoo.com, voice: 702-556-1721
• Avinash Kaiparambil (CSN - Spring 2010) email: kv_avinash@yahoo.com, mobile: 702-882-8679
• Brian Kalina, email: bkalina1@gmail.com or kalinab@unlv.nevada.edu, with Southwest Gas. Voice: 702-408-4917
• Ferrin Affleck with Affleck Engineering, email: fpa@affleckengineering.com, voice: 702-431-4827

#### CEE 468/668 Teaching Assistant

• Eneliko Mulokozi, email: mulokozi@unlv.nevada.edu, voice: 702-343-4758
• Dr. Mohammed Shahid Islam, email: shahidul92@hotmail.com, voice: 702-406-0418
1. Creating a web page: Document how to create a website on Microsoft Office Live
2. Bing Maps and Aerial Photos
3. Internet Mapping
4. KML, Geodatabase, shapefile
5. Projections
• Sang In Choi, email: choi_sangin@yahoo.com, voice: 702-556-1721
• Geocoding and Reverse Geocoding
• Network Analyst
• ArcGlobe
• 3D Analyst
• Dennis Brown, email: dendrite@cox.net, voice: 702-513-9274
• Geoprocessing
• Programming
• ArcCatalog
• Spatial Analyst
• Drainage Study Term Project
• Terri Bray, email: bbterri728@hotmail.com, voice: 702-481-4206
• ArcMap Layout
• Export to PDF
• COGO, Editing Features
• Selections and Query
• Joins, Spatial Joins
• Buffers
• Dissolve
• Former Assistants
• Lab Assistant - Sumit Puri, email: er.sumitpuri@gmail.com
• Grader: Biruktait Berta, email: biruktaitk@hotmail.com
• Gang Xie - email: xieg@rtcsnv.com (old UNLV email: xieg@unlv.nevada.edu)
• Yanjie Chen - email: lydia.chen.unlv@gmail.com (old UNLV email: cheny17@unlv.nevada.edu)
• Mukund Dangeti - email: mukund@trc.unlv.edu
• Ching Wang - email: ccwang@co.clark.nv.us

#### CEE 121 Elementary Surveying - Advisory Board

• Members
• H. "John" Jahanpour-Burke, PLS, work: 702-229-2240, email: hjahanpourburke@lasvegasnevada.gov, mobile: 310-633-1213, email: john@hjburke.com, Address: H. J. Burke, PO Box 35522, Las Vegas NV 89133
• Steven Youngberg, PLS, work email: Steven.Youngberg@csn.edu and home email: slyoungberg@cox.net
• Scott Hill, PLS, work email: shill@trcsolutions.com and home email: scottdhill@msn.com work: 702-248-6415
• Trent Keenan, PLS, WRS, email: tkeenan@diamondbacklandsurveying.com, mobile: 702-596-3257
• Vernon Little, PLS, WRS, RLS, email: vernl@vtnnv.com, work: 702-253-2429
• Rick Barron, LSI, email: rbarron@parcelon.com, mobile: 702-498-8471 (member of the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department Advisory Board)
• Bill Desjardins, email: bill@monsenengineering.com, work: 702-220-6505
• David Shields, PhD, Director Construction Management Program, voice: 702-895-1461, email: david.shields@unlv.edu
• Barbara Luke, PhD, PE, barbara.luke@unlv.edu
• Calvin Black, PE, PLS, work email: cblack@gcwallace.com, voice: 702-804-2020
• Consultants
• Dr. Richard L. Elgin, PE, PLS, Adjunct Professor. Provided the Lab Manual for Fundamentals of Surveying, CE001/ARCHE001 Department of Civil, Architectural & Environmental Engineering with the Missouri University of Science and Technology Rolla, Missouri. Email: elgin@mst.edu, voice: 573-368-1550
• Brian J. Swenty, PhD, PE, Professor & Chair in the Mechanical and Civil Engineering Department at the University of Evansville, Indiana. Earned MS at the University of Florida and BS, PhD from Missouri University of Science and Technology. Voice: 812-488-2661, email: bs3@evansville.edu
CE-183 Surveying is taught by Dr. Mark Valenzuela
• To Do List
• Vernon Little
1. Research - identify a project where the students can learn about researching records then give a presentation to the class.
1. Presentation on Friday, 4 June 2010
2. identify a project to research - Parcel with 200ft drainage easement
3. Clark County Recorder
4. BLM Master Title Plats
5. BLM GLO Records
6. Clark County Assessor
7. A History of the Rectangular Survey System by C. Albert White published by BLM
2. Positional Certainty, Precision and Allowable Misclosure
3. How to handle misclosure in CAD?
• Agenda and Meetings
• 2010 May 6

• Committee Goals
• Improve CEE 301 course curriculum
• Members
• Water Resources - Dennis Brown, PE
• Drainage Studies, Detention Basin Design, Watersheds, Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL), Pipe Design (water, storm water, sewer)
• Environmental - vacant
• Structural/Architectural - vacant
• Structural Details,
• Transportation - vacant
• Topics: roadway/geometric design, pavement markings, traffic control plans, MUTCD, traffic studies, utilities
• Land Development - vacant
• Topics: residential design, master plans, bid packages (engineer's estimate, specs and drawings), Clark County Areas Standard Drawings
• Geotechnical - vacant

#### CEE 695 Structural Masonry Theory and Design - Advisory Board

• Bruce M. Jett, home: 702-255-2286, email: jettbd@embarqmail.com
• Nick Oana

### UNLV Civil Engineering Program - Educational Objectives

The objectives of the Civil Engineering undergraduate degree program are to prepare graduates who can perform at the entry level in civil engineering practice so that, some years after graduation, they can become licensed professionals having responsibility for the planning, design, implementation, operation and continuous improvement of civil engineering structures and infrastructure. They will be provided with skills and tools for life-long learning, continuing professional development, and to pursue advanced degrees.

### UNLV Measurable Program Outcomes

#### Civil Engineering Graduates will have attained the following outcomes

• 01. an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics through differential equations, calculus-based physics, chemistry, and at least one additional area of science, and engineering;
• 02. an ability to design and conduct civil engineering experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret the resulting data;
• 03. an ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability;
• 04. an ability to function on multidisciplinary teams;
• 05. an ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems;
• 06. an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility;
• 07. an ability to communicate effectively;
• 08. the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context;
• 09. a recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in life-long learning;
• 10. a knowledge of contemporary issues;
• 11. an ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice;
• 12. an ability to apply knowledge of four technical areas appropriate to civil engineering;
• 13. an ability to design a system, component, or process in more than one civil engineering context;
• 14. an ability to explain basic concepts in management, business, public policy, and leadership; and an ability to explain the importance of professional licensure.

### CEE 121 Course Relationship with UNLV College of Engineering Measurable Program Outcomes

• Outcome 4 (Introduction) - The ability to function on multidisciplinary teams
• Students work on a traverse and level loop/circuit as a team of 3-5 people
• Multidisciplinary - student's speciality area will range from 1) Water Resources and Environmental, 2) Structural, 3) Transportation, or 4) Geotechnical. Students might also have a Construction Management speciality.
• Outcome 11 (Introduction) - The ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice
• Students are taught how to use modern surveying equipment (GPS and Total Stations) along with traditional survey equipment (automatic levels, theodolites, steel tape/chain measurement, tripod setup, rotational levels)
• Students are taught how to take their field measurements and import into Civil 3D, create a design, and finally stake out the design in the field.

#### Rationale for Survey Equipment Upgrade

• Big Picture
• Civil Design is based on 1) identify the existing conditions, 2) proposing a solution/design, 3) construction layout of the design, and 4) as-built the constructed project for maintenance. Even the best designs can fail if the existing conditions are not properly captured or the construction layout isn't accurate. So, it is crucial the Civil Engineer understands the whole process.
• Future Employeer Expectations
• Students know how to use modern survey equipment
• Problem is existing UNLV survey equipment is dated. By having some Total Stations and GPS Units, UNLV students will be familiar with modern surveying equipment.
• The employeer doesn't expect the Civil Engineer to do the job of the Land Surveyor (e.g. identify boundary/property lines) but he does expect the engineer to know how to do some basic field measurements. This might include how to fill in any gaps with the survey. For example, the Engineer has been given a topo from the Surveyor but the elevation of a nearby building is missing or the invert elevation of culvert. Do you get in a discussion with the surveyor on what the deliverables are, a discussion with the client you need additional funds or do you just easily go out and measure this using modern survey equipment like a GPS unit.
• Outcome 5 - identify, formulate and solve engineering problems
• How can you formulate and solve an engineering problem if you don't have access to the existing condition data?
• To get the existing condition data, in the case of land development, you need access to modern surveying equipment or a budget to hire a land surveyor.
• Outcome 11 - Multidisciplinary Teams
• Access to modern survey equipment creates a learning base for the students. Thus they can expand their knowledge into Senior Design where they work on a design with a team.
• When UNLV students do their senior design, they typically won't have a budget to send out a survey crew to collect a topo. So they either have to use some existing data from another project or collect it themselves. By having access to modern surveying equipment the UNLV student now has more choices, that is freedom on project selection.
• Outcome 13 - design a system in more than one civil engineering context.
• If the Civil Engineer has access to modern surveying tools, then they can expand their design into the surveying context, that is either the measurement of existing conditions or the layout of a proposed design. In any case, this makes for a better design now that the civil engineering is thinking in another context, that is how this design will fit with the exist topology.

### CEE 301 Course Relationship with UNLV College of Engineering Measurable Program Outcomes

• Outcome 3 (Application) - The ability to design a system...within realistic constraints
• Students will design a real-world 9 lot residential subdivision
• Outcome 11 (Introduction and Application) - The ability to use modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice
• Students obtain the skills necessary to design based on Standard Drawings from the local agencies.

### CEE 468 Course Relationship with UNLV College of Engineering Measurable Program Outcomes

• Outcome 1 (Application) - ability to apply knowledge of mathematics through...an area of science and engineering
• Outcome 3 (Application, Synthesis) - ability to design a system...or process...within realistic constraints
• Students design a GIS process to determine the rainfall runoff for a design storm
• Outcome 5 (Application) - ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems
• Outcome 7 (Application) - ability to communicate effectively
• Students use maps and webpages to show the results of their analysis
• Students use products like Google Earth, Google Maps and ArcGIS Online to display their spatial content to the world
• Outcome 11 (Introduction, Application) - ability to use...modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice
• Outcome 12 (Application) - ability to apply knowledge of four technical areas appropriate to civil engineering
• Water Resources and Environmental - create watershed boundaries, using NOAA rainfall surfaces, USGS DEM, potable water and sewer line inventory, flood control facilities and conveyance
• Structural - inventory of building permits
• Transportation - 1) vehicle routing - shortest path, quickest path, optimal service routes, 2) street inventory, 3) public transportation - bus route and stops inventory, 4) topographic maps and surveying
• Geotechnical - create a geodatabase of the hydrologic soil groups from the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) SSURGO datasets.

## Learning Objectives

### CEE 121 Course Learning Objectives

1. Constraints/Restrictions
• Only have about 45 hours of lecture and 45 hours of lab to cover the materials in a single semester, 3 credit class
Jeff, can you give me a thumbnail overview of 1. The big picture of what we would like to have and why 2. What we have purchased to date and what has the total cost been? 3. Where do the items in these quotes fit into the bigger picture and what do we lose if we do not have them? What I need to do is figure out what per cent of the lab fee account is going to surveying equipment and I need to know what per cent of the expenditures for the needs of the course we have met to date.
2. Goals
• What is the big picture and what is needed to accomplish it?
• Big Picture - womb to tomb approach. A civil engineer wants to civilize raw land, survey the existing ground, do a civil design, stake out the project design for construction and finally create AS-BUILTS/Record Drawings of the final project to hand over to maintenance.
• Problems - it is very expensive for a civil engineering firm to have its own surveying crew
• Problems - civil engineer is working on a design and sees he needs a few points to make the topo complete. Does he pay the surveyor to do this or go out and measure it himself?
• Problems - AeroTech created a topo of UNLV campus. Problem is areas of dense trees, unable to obtain topo.
• Problems - GPS has trouble with urban canyons and dense trees.
• Problems - Senior Design team wants to do a design to solve some local drainage issues but needs some accurate topo.
• Problems - UNLV Facilities Management wants to get an accurate inventory, that is building square footage.
• Problems - UNLV would like to advertise it's campus to the world by creating 3D models of each building and uploading to Google Earth.
• Students exposed to the profession of a land surveyor
• Students have the knowledge to pass the surveying portion of the FE and California PE exams
3. Topics (ranked in order of importance)
4. Equipment Wishlist

### CEE 301 Course Learning Objectives

#### Upon successfully completing this course, the student will be able to perform the following:

1. Identify a problem and develop a design to solve it using modern tools (Autodesk Civil 3D). Provide a presentation with figures on the proposed solution.
2. Understand the basics of AutoCAD and Civil 3D - what it can and can't do
3. Read and interpret civil engineering plans
4. Calculate line work for a subdivision
5. Make roadway alignments and stationing
6. Build a 3D surface of the existing ground
7. Build a 3D surface of the proposed finished grade
8. Make a Plan and Profile plot of the existing ground
9. Make a Plan and Profile plot of the proposed finished grade
10. Draw 3D ploylines for pads
11. Run earthwork volumes and +/- grid tics

## Mission Statements

### Civil and Environmental Engineering Mission Statement

It is the mission of the department to produce quality civil engineering graduates with technical and management skills that meet or exceed the expectations of industry, government and graduate programs.

### Instructor's Mission Statement

To make great civil engineers! To provide the knowledge, skills and tools necessary to civilize the world.

## Tutoring

• UNLV Tutoring
• Free to students
• Tutoring@unlv.edu or call 702-774-4623
• Tutor earns \$10-\$13 an hour depending upon experience. As of Spring 2010 all tutors only earn \$10 an hour.
• I only give a recommendation for 1) those students which have previously taken my course and earned an A, 2) those students which volunteer as a teaching lab assistant, and 3) those students demonstrating a willing to serve others
• Rimi Marwah, Tutoring Director, email: rimi.marwah@unlv.edu, voice: 702-895-3177, Office: Academic Success Center (SSC-103)
• Does the Tutoring lab have access to computers? If yes, can software be installed?
• Nesley Orochena (mobile 702-401-0022, direct work: 702-652-3035 main work: 702-652-1110) Tutoring Hours
• Sunday 4:00-8:00pm 2nd floor of the Library
• Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 6:00-8:00pm also on the 2nd floor of the Library
• no computer lab in the Dining Commons, need to bring your own laptop or Nesley will use his own.
• Subjects: AutoCAD and Civil3D (CEE301 and CEE110L), GIS (CEE468), Surveying (CEE121) and Waste Water (CEE450)
• Sang In Choi Tutoring Hours
• still to be determined

• Some Tips for Effective Reading by Dr. Chad Berry with Berea College
• Identify any questions you have about the reading (make notes in the textbook with a pencil)
• Identify key terms and concepts
• Seek to identify the author's main points. Answer the question, "So what is the author trying to say?"
• Evaluate. Did it work?
• Divide up large chunks of reading and set daily goals to cover the material
• Pay attention to introductions and conclusions
• Constantly ask yourself questions? "What does this have to do with me?" "What was the main point of that section?"

## CEE121 Textbooks

• Required
• Elementary Surveying - An Introduction to Geomatics, 12th Edition by Charles D. Ghilani and Paul R. Wolf. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-615431-0
• Companion Website - http://www.pearsonhighered.com/ghilani
https://register.pearsoncmg.com/register/reg1.jsp
account ID: 23130703 login: unlvcee and password: duplicate121 Access code: HGHIL-BOREE-TWEAK-WITAN-TUBBY-TAXES HEAIRC-LEVEE-CONIC-CLIMB-HIJAZ-ESEBO
• Dr. Charles D. Ghilani - cghilani@psu.edu maintains a website of Surveying Goodies
• Dr. Salvator (Sal) Marsico - sam4@psu.edu
• Chapter 1 - Introduction
• 1.1 Definition of Surveying
• 1.4 Geodetic and Plane Surveys
• 1.11 Professional Surveying Organizations
• Chapter 2 - Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes
• 2.4 Significant Figures
• 2.5 Rounding Off Numbers
• Part II - Field Notes
• Chapter 4 - Leveling - Theory, Methods, and Equipment
• 4.2 Definitions
• 4.3 North American Vertical Datum
• 4.5 Methods for Determining Differences in Elevation
• 1.1 - what is definition of surveying?
• 1.4 - what is the difference between geodetic and plane surveys?
• 1.11 - provide the URL to 3 professional surveying organizations.
• 2.4 - how many significant figures does 0.0024 have?
• 2.5 - round 78.3749 to four significant figure. shat is the difference between geodetic and plane surveys?
• 2.9 - what is the notekeeping axiom?
• 4.2 - level surfaces are also knows as _______ surfaces.
• 4.3 - NAVD88 uses a single tidal gage benchmark known as?
• 4.5.2 - What two equations can express differential leveling theory and applications?
• 5.3 - name a minimum of 3 things the rodperson must do to ensure an accurate measurement?
• 5.4 - what is loop misclosure?
• 5.6 - what other information is needed to adjust a level loop? (select A, B, or C)
• A. total perimeter distance (length of lines leveled) and angle between each setup.
• B. total perimeter distance (length of lines leveled) and/or number of setups.
• C. number of setups and datum of the benchmark.
• 6.3 - why is pacing a valuable thing to learn?
• 6.6 - what is another name for Tacheometry?
• 6.12 - what is breaking tape?
• 6.23 - what is the formula to determine the horizontal distance, H?
• 8.8 - Describe direct and reversed modes.
• 10.2 - for a closed traverse, what is the formula to determine the correct geometric total when determining misclosure?
• 10.3 - In boundary surveys, it is desired to incorporate within the traverse a line whose true direction was established through a previsou survey. This line of true direction is often referred to as the basis of bearing for the survey. (True or False)
• 10.4 - Departures and Latitudes are also known as eastings/westings and northing/southings. (True or False)
• 12.5 - Area by Coordinates is the algebraic summation of all products is computed and its absolute value divided by 2 to get the area. (True or False)
• 12.7 - What additional information is needed to calculate the area of a parcel which has circular boundaris?
2. Central angle
3. coordinate (x,y) of the circle center
4. all of the above
• 10.3 - In boundary surveys, it is desired to incorporate within the traverse a line whose true direction was established through a previsou survey. This line of true direction is often referred to as the basis of bearing for the survey. (True or False)
• 10.4 - Departures and Latitudes are also known as eastings/westings and northing/southings. (True or False)
• 15.1 Is data latency defined as erros caused by a time difference between the base station/receiver and the rover? (True or False)
• 15.4 Is data latency typically between 0.05-1.0 seconds? (True or False)
• 15.3 What equipment is typically used in Kinematic Surveys?
1. Tripod with a tribrach used to mount the GPS receiver
2. Radio Antenna to connect to the rover
3. Prism and rod
4. Both a and b
• 15.3 Mounting the radio antenna high can increase the range of the base radio? (True or False)
• 17.3 - What is map scale?
• 17.6 - the distance between contours indicated the steepness of a slope (T or F)?
• 17.9.2 - what is the value of K (stadia interval factor)?
• 18.11 - For ease in map reading, how should the lettering be oriented?
2. read from the right side
3. read from the left side
4. both a and b
• 18.12 - List 4 types of cartographic map elements
1. Notes
2. Legends
3. Bar scales
4. Meridian (north) arrows
5. Title blocks
6. all the above
• 18.14 - Provide the definition of a TIN and what it is used for ?
• 20.2 - what projections are used in the State Plane Coordinate System?
• 20.8.1 - Describe the elevation factor and scale factor.
• 20.12 - How many UTM zones are there?
1. 1
2. 9
3. 30
4. 60
• 21.1 - What agency maintains the official legal description of each public parcel in the United States?
• 21.1 - What agency maintains the official legal descriptions of each private parcel in the United States?
• 21.2 - Fixing title boundaries must be done by agreement between adjacent land owners or by court action. (True of False)
• 21.4 - Give the definition of the following:
• metes
• bounds
• POC
• POB
• Grantor
• Grantee
• 21.8 - A subdivision project requires what types of survey?
• exterior boundary survey of the tract being divided
• topographic survey
• subdivision design
• layout of the interior tract
• all of the above
• 22.3 How many initial points have been set in the USA?
1. 37
2. 27
3. 5
4. 1
• 22.8 What is the distance/interval between township/tiers east/west lines?
1. 6 miles
2. 1 mile
3. 24 miles
4. 1 km
• 22.11 Subdivision of a township - when the surveyor subdivides a township into 36 - 1 mi2 sections, which corner does he start his survey?
1. Northeast corner of township
2. Northwest corner of township
3. Southwest corner of township
4. Southeast corner of township
• 24.1 Name four types of horizontal curves?
• 24.2 What is the curve length used in the degree of circular curve formula?
• Field Book
• Required but available at the Library
• Surveying & Layout - Fundamentals for Construction by Paul W. Holley. ISBN: 0-471-78389-7. Auburn University Dept of Building Science and the Construction Channel
• DVD 1 of 2 Title Menu
• Chapter 1: Introduction & Basic Measurement (Ch1text.pdf and video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_0-Introduction.wmv Ch1_0)
• 1. Introduction (video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_1-BasicMeasure_Intro.wmv Ch1_1)
• 2. Basic Gear & Vocabulary (video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_2-BasicMeasure_Gear.wmv Ch1_2)
• 3. The Field Book (video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_3-BasicMeasure_FieldBook.wmv Ch1_3)
• 4. "Plumb" & the Plumb Bob
• a. Introduction & Basic Info (video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_4a-BasicMeasure_Plumb.wmv Ch1_4a)
• b. Techniques (video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_4b-BasicMeasure_PlumbTechniques.wmv Ch1_4b)
• c. Recap (video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_4c-BasicMeasure_PlumbRecap.wmv Ch1_4c)
• 5. Measurement
• a. Introduction & Basic Info (video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_5a-BasicMeasure_MeasurementIntro.wmv Ch1_5a)
• b. Techniques (video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_5b-BasicMeasure_MeasurementTechniques.wmv Ch1_5b)
• c. Recap (video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_5c-BasicMeasure_MeasurementRecap.wmv Ch1_5c)
• 6. Pacing (video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_6-BasicMeasure_Pacing.wmv Ch1_6)
• 7. Recap (video L:\Jeffery Jensen\CEE121\SurveyingAndLayoutDVD\Ch1_7-BasicMeasure_Recap.wmv Ch1_7)
• Chapter 2: The Instrument Level (Ch2text.pdf)
• 1. Introduction
• 2. Gear - Terms
• 3. Relative/Differential Measurement
• 4. Instrument Set-up
• 5. Recap
• Chapter 3: The Leveling Method (Ch3text.pdf)
• 1. Introduction
• 2. Leveling Method & Field Notes
• 3. Close-up of Field Book
• 4. Techniques & Communication
• 5. Rotational Lasers, Grade at Existing Buildings
• 6. Practice Calculation
• 7. Recap
• Chapter 4: The Digital Transit (Ch4text.pdf)
• 1. Introduction
• 2. Parts & Pieces
• 3. Transit Set-up
• 4. Recap
• DVD 2 of 2 Title Menu
• Chapter 5: Control Lines, Back-Sight Lines, & Building Layout (Ch5text.pdf)
• 1. Introduction
• 2. Control Lines & Layout Techniques
• 3. Field Book Entries for Layout
• 4. Practice Calculation
• 5. Recap
• Chapter 6: Batter Boards & Structural Layout (Ch6text.pdf)
• 1. Introduction
• 2. Types of Batter Boards & Structural Considerations
• 3. Batter Board Techniques
• 4. Bucking In
• 5. Practice Calculation
• 6. Recap
• Chapter 7: Field Calibrations & Interior Partition Layout (Ch7text.pdf)
• 1. Introduction
• 2. Field Calibration Techniques (automatic instrument level and digital transit)
• 3. Interior Partition Layout - Equipment, Accessories, & Terms
• 4. Interior Partition Techniques
• 5. Recap
• Chapter 8: Total Stations & EDM (Ch8text.pdf)
• 1. Introduction
• 2. Equipment
• 3. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM)
• 4. Total Station Set-Up
• 5. Total Station Techniques
• 6. Practice Calculation
• 7. Recap

• Chapter Quizes
• Chapter 1
1. The primary purpose of the field book is:
• to be a diary for subcontractor progress
• to track discrepancies between the drawings and actual field conditions found during the layout process
• to be a clear and consistent reference for field work, layout procedures, and problem solving
2. The primary purpose of a plumb bob is:
• to establish a line of sight for layout
• to transfer a point or line vertically
• to confirm a distance between two points
3. The first page of a field book should always contain:
• Contact information
• Project information
• None of the above
• All of the above
4. A plumb bob is 'powered' by:
• gravity
• magnetism
• batteries
• kinetic energy
5. An instrument level is primarily used to:
• establish points or points on a line
• measure distances electronically
• measure distances vertically
6. A transit is primarily used to:
• establish points or points on a line
• measure distances electronically
• establish a benchmark
7. A total station is a type of transit, but differs from a conventional transit in that:
• it is digital
• it is not mounted on a tripod when in use
• it is capable of measuring distances electronically
• none, it is identical to a conventional transit
8. A horizontal distance is to be measured where the vertical differential in grade requires separating the distance into smaller segments. This technique is called:
• slope chain
• break chain
• level chain
• steep chain
9. The average persons two step length is about
• 3 ft
• 5 ft
• 6 ft
10. In slope chaining, a chain that is not taught or level will _______ the dimension?
• understate
• overstate
• have no effect on
• have an unknown effect on
11. True or False - Field books have pre-printed lines that are conducive for data to be entered on the left hand page, and graphics on the right hand page.
12. True or False - Field book entries should include all information necessary so that someone else might come behind you and be able to utilize your data.

• Chapter 2 and Chapter 3
1. An instrument level is primarily used to determine or establish
• line or points on a line
• electronic distances
• points on the X axis
2. Grade related layout is used in which of the following construction phases:
• Civil - dirt work, utilities
• Structural - foundation excavation, slabs
• Architectural - finished floor, skin, windows
• All of the above
3. For any leveling circuit/loop, the sum of the back sights minus the sum of the forward sights must equal the difference in:
• the first back sight and the last forward sight
• the first forward sight and the last back sight
• the first benchmark and the first turning point
• the first benchmark and the final benchmark
4. True of False - It is basically impossible to re-establish an instrument set-up at an exact elevation
• True
• False
5. To determine the first HEIGHT OF INSTRUMENT (HI) also known as the elevation of the instruments level plane, in a leveling circuit/loop, add the elevation of the known benchmark and the first
• back sight (BS or + sight)
• fore/forward sight (FS or - sight)
• line of sight
• turning point (TP)
6. The focus adjustment located at the eye-piece of an instrument level adjusts the focus of
• the image seen through the instrument
• the point over which the instrument is set up
• the gunsight
• the crosshairs
7. True or False - The "auto-level" can be used instead of using the leveling wheels to properly align the fish-eye
• True
• False
8. In a conventional leveling circuit/loop, an interim point for which its elevation is determined by subtracting the fore/forward sight (FS) from the height of instrument (HI) is called
• height of instrument (HI)
• the final benchmark
• a Turning Point (TP)
• a line of sight
9. In a leveling circuit/loop, a back sight (BS) should approximately equal its associated fore/forward sight (FS) so that
• images require little focus adjustment
• the rodman does not have to walk very far
• calibration errors can be cancelled out
• the grade rod is plumb
• overstated
• understated
• acceptable
• out of focus
11. The feature on an instrument level used to establish a "rough" line of sight is the
• fish-eye level vials / bull's-eye level vials / circular level bubble vials
• leveling whell
• optical focus
• gunsight / sight

• Chapter 4
1. Setting up a transit/theodolite is different than setting up an automatic/instrument level because the transit/theodolite must be centered over a particular point
• True
• False
2. Carrying the instrument attached to the tripod over your shoulder short distances is acceptable as long as you are careful
• True
• False
3. The upper clamp screw must be locked before you can make fine tune adjustments with the upper tangent screw
• True
• False
4. The optical plummet on a transit is used to center the instrument over a specific point
• True
• False
5. When setting up a transit, it is recommended to use __________ to initially level the theodolite/transit instrument using the fish-eye/ bull's eye level.
• the leveling wheels
• the tripod legs
• the optical scope
• the gun sight
6. Theodolites/Transits are primarly used to view or establish points on a line in two dimensions using 'plan' view components?
• True
• False
7. Once the optical plummet shows that a transit/thedolite is initially set up directly over a point, it will never move off of the point during the setup process, and need not be checked.
• True
• False
8. When using the transit/theodolite, distances do not have to be chained/measured?
• True
• False

• Chapter 5 and Chapter 6
1. A control line should always include a minimum of three points: some origin or layout point, and at least two back-sights.
• True
• False
2. Building Layout is a surveying process that uses control lines, primary origins, back-sights, and layout points to establish a building's structure and other construction elements.
• True
• False
3. Back-sights should be short distances away from a layout point to avoid obstructions that may occur from using further distances.
• True
• False
4. When establishing a series of layout points, it is recommended to measure each point from the previous point instead of chaining each of them from the original layout point.
• True
• False
5. Batter-boards are primarily used to transfer control lines above ground for structural layout construction.
• True
• False
6. A string tensioned on a batter-board can be used to mark the centerline of a column, centerline of a cast or masonry wall, or any other component as long as its location is "known."
• True
• False

• Chapter 7
1. What is the purpose of field calibration of surveying instruments?
• check and maintain the accuracy of the gear
• to determine whether the equipment needs to be repaired
• to determine whether the instrument is calibrated to within a certain tolerance
• all of the above
2. The digital transit is field calibrated by shooting a still, fixed target, then turning the instrument ________ and flipping the optical scope ___________ to determine how far off the crosshairs are from the original target.
• 90°, 90°
• 180°, 90°
• 90°, 180°
• 180°, 180°

• Chapter 8
1. The primary difference between a total station and a digital transit is that the total station is:
• capable of measuring distances electronically
• all of the above
2. An EDM device functions by emitting a beam of light and returning it to the instrument, thus measuring the distance from the time it takes the light to be received.
• True
• False
3. When performing layout with the total station and prism pole where vertical height data is required, it is not necessary to set the prism height equal to the height of the instrument.
• True
• False
4. The indented crosshair in the center of the battery on the side of a total station is used to:
• establish a line of sight
• establish the height of the instrument
• represent the center of the EDM function and used to set prism pole height
• simply designates the side opposite the EDM function
5. On level surfaces, the line of sight from instrument to prism is the same as the horizontal distance, whereas on sloped surfaces, the line of sight becomes the hypotenuse in a right triangle equation to determine the horizontal distance.
• True
• False
• Recommended
• Beneficial

#### UNLV Bookstore

• UNLV Bookstore (Barnes and Noble): Contact Elizabeth (voice: 702-895-4169 or email: bookstore@unlv.edu)
• Rebelbooks: Contact Jeanne Hooper, Manager (voice: 702-891-0276 or email: manager@rebelbook.com)

#### Ideas for 2nd Edition of Paul Holley DVD

1. Plumb bob and gammon-real - how to hold it as shown in the video
2. setup a tripod on a hill over a benchmark/monument
3. Tripod step etiquette 1) claws/feet of tripod should be vertical, 2) equipment should base to line up with the tripod
4. Azimuth from Polaris
5. GPS
• What is the ellipsoid, geoid and orthometric heights
• NGS CORS stations
• NGS Data Sheets
• Datums
• Projections - stateplane coordinates

#### Ideal Surveying Field Book

1. Paper
• Weather resistant, will be used in the field and paper is durable to moisture, similar to dollar bills being resistant to water
• Acid free paper
• size height is 8.5 inches and width is 5.5 inches. When opening the book, it will lay flat so it can easily be photocopied in landscape mode.
2. Provide a pen/pencil holder elastic band
3. ruler is printed in the margins (inches and mm)
4. pocket for a flexible straight edge which is also a template for circles, squares and triangles. Need to know standard symbols for monuments or have a legend, pictures page which students can reference
• slots to mark angles 0-90 degrees, this will be used instead of a compass
5. some blank sheet protectors in the back where the student can insert typical standards, abbreviations, or legend instead of having to duplicate, can just insert. Could also be adapted to various regions which have different standards. This could include the Nevada Revised Statues.
6. blank sheets for pictures would also be helpfule when gluing pictures into the book
7. Want a rubber band, flap or zipper to keep the book closed in case it is dropped.
8. Calculator to add DMS and conversion to DD
• Example of a combo ruler and solar calculator - Ruler calculator
• Need a calendar which also gives the day of the year (useful for GPS and basestations when downloading RINEX files)
9. book is flexiable, fit in the surveyor's back pocket or on a tool belt
10. Outside binding, ability to write label the project name on the binding for archive in the office
11. pocket to store loose notes
12. Ring to hold a small flashlight or clip to be easily attached to a belt loop.
Measuring the Earth from the Educator's Reference Desk Lesson Plan

#### Software

• Licensed Features on Hardware Key 1132490527
• Survey Standard (enabled)
• TBC-HCE Total Station and GNSS Processing (unlicensed)
• TBC-HCE Total Station Processing (unlicensed)

#### TBC Import NGS Worksheet

• Background
• used to provide GNSS control data
• see class notes on NGS Data Sheets
• Trimble Business Center has the ability to read/parse out and map/plot the information from a NGS Data Sheet
• NGS data sheets provide a control reference and is helpful to add these first before import the GNSS data from a GPS survey
• Step 1: Within TBC, File -> New Project...
click US Survey Foot
• Step 2: Within TBC, Project -> Project Settings...
click the Coordinate System folder on the left side of the Project Settings Dialog
click the Change... button
select the following Coordinate System: US State Plane 1983, Nevada East 2701, GEOID09(Conus)
• Step 4: NGS Data Sheet
• click NGS Data Sheet (all control points) then click the Automatic button on the Internet Download task pane.
• for your given project, in this case UNLV, enter the Lat/Long of UNLV (i.e. project site) and then TBC will forward this spatial query to the NGS website to return a list monuments in the search radius. Click the OK button to open the NGS webpage
• Step 6: select HAZE data sheet
• select the NGS data sheet Designation = HAZE
• click the Get Datasheets button. This will return the data sheet.
• On your web browser, select File -> Save As... to save the data sheet locally. Save as a text file, that is file type text. For example save as D:\backup\unlv\cee121\TBC\Tutorial02UNLV\PID-GR1938.txt
• Step 7: Import NGS Data Sheet
• File -> Import
• Browse to where you saved the NGS data sheet, e.g. D:\backup\unlv\cee121\TBC\Tutorial02UNLV\PID-GR1938.txt
• TBC should automatically add the monument and zoom to it. To display the coordinates of the cursor location, click the checkbox at the bottom right corner of the TBC application window
• Autodesk Civil 3D 2010
• Corpscon (Corps Convert) by US Army Corps of Engineers: Topographic Engineering Center (TEC) - Survey Engineering and Mapping Center of Expertise
• based on Nadcon, Vertcon and GeoidXX (Geoid99/Geoid03)
• Corpscon6_user_guide.pdf
• input format: degrees-minutes-decimal seconds (115-30-15.9)
Jeff Jensen Notes Microsoft Excel

## Microsoft Excel

#### Special Characters

• Degree Symbol, ° = char(176)
• Single Quote, ' = char(39)
• Double Quote, " = char(34)
• Delta, Δ = delta, δ = char(68)

#### Named Cell, Named Range of Cells

• How do you reference named cells in a calculation? Just type in the variable/named cell name, no special characters are needed.
• GraphCosine.xlsx

## Jobs/Employment

• Indeed.com - one search for all jobs
• Nevada Career Information System (NCIS)
• to login, select your city (Las Vegas), Zipcode (89154) and phone area code (702)
• click the Occupations link, search for Civil Engineering or Surveying. Then click the Outlook link on the right
• alternatively, click on the NV Workforce Informer to see the job outlook
• Darragh Huggins, Economist with the Department of Employment, Training and Rehabilitation - Research and Analysis Bureau. Voice: 775-684-0378, email: d-huggins@nvdetr.org
• Tahoe Resources Inc a mining company, Cindy Saunders - Human Resources Manager (CSaunders@tahoeresourcesinc.com voice: 775-825-8574 x221)

#### Scholarships

• 2010 SolarNV Scholarship Application - American Solar Energy Society, Southern Nevada Chapter
• Nevada Contractors Association - David Papadopulo Memorial Scholarship application, \$3750 and need to apply in the Dean's office. Due Friday 16 July 2010.

#### FE Review To Do

1. Earthworks - more problems, calculate cross-sectional area
2. Trig - need problems on simple areas
3. Horizontal curves - need problems

#### FE Survey Review and Practice Problems

1. Distances
1. Given: Measurement of 1372.13 ft at temperature of 13°F. Find the measured distance adjusted for the correction. (Schaum's Outlines - Introductory Surveying, by James R. Wirshing and Roy H. Wirshing, Problem 3.11, p. 58)
2. Given: Measurement of 697.13 ft at temperature of 72°F. Find the corrected measurement at this temperature. (Schaum's Outlines - Introductory Surveying, by James R. Wirshing and Roy H. Wirshing, Problem 3.12, p. 58)
3. Pythagoren Theorem and Rectangular Coordinates
1. Given the coordinates of two points, Point A (125,25) and Point B (155,65), determine the length of the between them.
2. Angles
1. convert an Azimuth of 123°17' to Bearings. (Answer: S56°43'E)
2. convert a Bearing of S37°43'W to Azimuths. (Answer: 217°43')
3. Add the following angles A) 100°45'37" B) 231°23'43" C) 17°12'59" D) 89°03'28" E) 101°34'24". (Answer: 540°0'11")
4. convert Decimal Degrees (DD) to Degrees Minutes Seconds (DMS) given an angle of 236.345°. (Answer: 236°20'42")
5. convert DMS to DD given an angle of 236°20'42". (Answer: 236.345°)
6. What is the sum, Σ of the interior angles for a 5 sided polygon?
7. What is the angular error/misclosure for the following angles in a 5 sided closed traverse polygon: A) 100°45'37" B) 231°23'43" C) 17°12'59" D) 89°03'28" E) 101°34'24". (Answer: 11")
3. Trigonometry
1. Law of Sines
2. Law of Cosines
• Given a triangle with a=45.0, b=67.0, and angle C=145°, solve for side c and angles A and B. (Answers: c=107.0, A=14°, B=21°) (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanzafama, & Kissam, Example 3-15, p. 48)
• see lecture notes on Law of Cosines
3. Similar Triangles
• Find the height of the tree
4. Find the height of the structure
5. If a map scale is 1:50,000, what does a 1-in length represent in terms of miles? What does a 1-cm length represent in terms of kilometers? (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanzafama, & Kissam, Problem 4, p. 224)
• Answer: 1 in = 0.789 mi; 1 cm = 0.5 km
• see lecture notes on Drawing Scales
4. Area computations
1. Area of Triangle
2. Area of a Trapezoid
3. Area of a Polygon/Closed Traverse
• Find the area of this polygon/closed traverse
5. Leveling
6. Closure, Positional Certainty
1. see lecture notes on Positional Certainty
7. Earthwork Calculations
1. Given just black portion of the above figure in the problem description. The volume of the embankment per 100-ft length is most nearly equal to? (Civil Engineering Problems and Solutions , 14th Ed, Donald G. Newnan, p. 12-26 and 13-31)
1. 5000 ft3
2. 8250 ft3
3. 52,000 ft3
5. 102,800 ft3
2. see Average End Area Formula
8. Horizontal Curves
9. Vertical Curves

#### Fundamentals of Surveying (FS) Exam (formerly called the Land Surveyor Intern - LSI)

• 8 hr exam administered by NSCEE
• NV Land Surveyor Intern (LSI) Application Instructions
• FS Sample Questions and Solutions Book
• FS Reference Formulas
• Education in Surveying: Fundamentals of the Surveying Exam by Robert J. Schultz, PE, PLS. Professional Surveyor Magazine, March 2006 Volume 26 Issue 3.
• 15 Major Topics, 170 Questions
1. Algebra and Trigonometry - 11%
2. Higher Math (beyond trigonometry) - 4%
3. Probability and Statistics, Measurement Analysis, Data Adjustment - 5%
4. Basic Sciences - 4%
5. Geodesy, Survey Astronomy, and Geodetic Survey Calculation - 6%
6. Computer Operations and Programming - 6%
7. Written Communication - 6%
9. Business Law, Management, Economics, Finance, and Survey Planning Process and Procedures. - 6%
10. Field Data Acquisition and Reduction - 10%
11. Photo/Image Data Acquistion and Reduction - 4%
12. Graphic Communication, Mapping - 6%
13. Plane Surveying Calculation - 10%
14. Geographic Information System (GIS) Concepts - 4%
15. Land Development Principles - 5%

#### Nevada Revised Statues - Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors

• NRS 625.270 Qualifications of applicant for licensure as professional land surveyor. [Effective July 1, 2010.]
• NRS 625.280
• 3. The Board may administer or authorize an accredited college or university that offers a program in land surveying approved by the Board to administer the examination on the fundamentals of land surveying to persons who are not applicants for licensure as professional land surveyors in this state.
• Emailed James Elithorp with Great Basin College (GBC) to see if he administers this test to his students at GBC on 19 June 2010
• NRS 625.386 Qualifications for certification as land surveyor intern or engineer intern.
• 1. To be eligible for certification as a land surveyor intern, an applicant must:
(a) Be a graduate of or in the final year of a land-surveying or engineering curriculum of 4 years or more that has been approved by the Board and have passed the examination on the fundamentals of land surveying provided for in NRS 625.280;

or

(b) Have had 4 years or more of experience in land-surveying work that is satisfactory to the Board and have passed the examination on the fundamentals of land surveying provided for in NRS 625.280.

#### State Board of Engineers and Land Surveyors

2. Arizona
3. California
5. Florida
6. Hawaii
7. Maine
8. Massachusetts
9. Minnesota
11. New Mexico
12. New York
13. Oregon
14. Texas
15. Utah
16. Washington
17. Wisconsin

#### Surveying Certification

• Two levels of Certification: 1) AutoCAD Civil 3D 2010 Certified Associate (student cost is \$25) see autodesk.starttest.com and 2) AutoCAD Civil 3D 2010 Certified Professional (student cost is \$50)
• Web-delivered exams requiring the students to demonstrate their skills by using Autodesk applications such as AutoCAD, Autodesk Inventor Professional, Revit Architecture and AutoCAD Civil 3D software products to solve real-world problems.
• Testing center email: certification@autodesk.com

#### Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology Certificate

• University of California, Riverside (UCR). UCR Extension Center on 1200 University Ave.
• Jennifer Campbell, Program Coordinator (voice: 951-827-1620, email: sciences@ucx.ucr.edu)
• No Federal Financial Aid is available
• ERT X440.1 - Principles of GPS Technology
• ERT X440.2 - Fundamentals of Geodesy
• ERT X440.3 - GPS Techniques: RTK, CORS and DGPS by Derek Main. Jan 30 (Mon 6-9pm) Feb 4 (Sat 8-5pm) Feb 13 (Mon 6-9pm) Feb 25 (Sat 8-5pm) Feb 27 (Mon 6-9pm) Mar 5 (Mon 6-9pm) Mon 6-9pm on Jan 30, Feb 13, Feb 27 and Mar 5, then Sat 8-5pm on Feb 4 and Feb 25
• ERT X440.4 - Control Surveys Using GPS by Arthur R. Andrew III, PLS for County of Orange. Sept 11-12, 2010
• ERT X440.5 - GPS Leveling by Jay Satalich, PLS for Landata Airborne Systems, Inc
• ERT X440.6 - Survey Data Adjustments
• ERT X440.8 - GPS Processing and Analysis
• ERT X440.9 - Map Projections by Kevin Kelly is a Geodetic Engineer with ESRI Redlands. Jan 21-22, 2012 cost is \$345 Oct 23-24, 2010
• ERT X453.6 - GIS Data Capture Using GPS Technology by Warren Roberts (email: wroberts@riohondo.edu or gisteacher@gmail.com) GIS Coordinator with Rio Hondo College, Whittier CA.

## Surveying and GIS

List of Professional Organizations

#### Nevada Association of Land Surveyors

• Trent Keenan, PLS, President-Elect of NALS Southern Nevada Chapter. Diamondback Land Surveying, 4933 W Craig Rd, Las Vegas NV 89130 phone: 702-596-3257 email: tkeenan@diamondbacklandsurveying.com
• Terry W. McHenry, PLS, Editor, The Nevada Traverse
14710 Rancheros Dr
Reno NV 89521
email: editornvtraverse@sbcglobal.net
Bus/Fax: 775-852-7290
• Linda Armstrong, Executive Secretary, email: larmstrong@nv-landsurveyors.org
NALS Central Office
PO box 20522
Reno NV 89515
Bus/Fax: 775-624-6257

#### American Congress on Surveying & Mapping (ACSM)

• Student Chapter Info
• The American Congress on Surveying and Mapping
6 Montgomery Village Avenue, Suite 403
Gaithersburg, MD 20879
Phone (240) 632-9716 Fax (240) 632-1321
• Membership contact email: trisha.milburn@acsm.net voice: 240-632-9716 x105. Cost is \$28 a year, gives membership to ACSM, NSPS, GLIS and ASPRS
• Can purchase the 2009 Manual of Surveying Instructions. Cost \$125, if order 24 copies can get a 20% discount. If order 48 copies can get a 40% discount. Can also order other textbooks can get a 20% discount.
• Scholarships
• \$5000 for those who compete in the Tri-Star high school event

#### Student Activities

• ASCE Student Chapter
• Pacific Southwest Regional Conference (PSWRC) 2010
• Survey Competition - Team Leader asce.unlv@gmail.com
• Spring 2010 ASCE Survey Team: Alexander Wood (wood.alexander@rocketmail.com), Glenn Blake (gblake@unlv.nevada.edu), Alex Teran (ax.te@hotmail.com)

#### Surveying Colleges and Universities

• California State University, Fresno - Department of Civil and Geomatics Engineering and Construction Management - Geomatics Engineering Program

## Class Roster

#### 2010 Spring Semester - Instructor Jeff Jensen

Student Family Name, First Name Preferred Email Picture
Campuzano, Jesus jesus_campuzano747@yahoo.com
Carlson, Matt mcarlson91@gmail.com
Carral, Hugo corral.hugo@yahoo.com
Dushane, Tanner tdushane24@hotmail.com
Hoese, Alexander a11hoese@aol.com
Hiko, Aly cytotox1c@yahoo.com
Kazarin, Robert robert_kazarin@yahoo.com
Lopez, Luky rlpurplerose@gmail.com
Mejia, Dimaz dimasmejia16@yahoo.com
Pfabe, Pisani "Blaise" blaisepisani90@gmail.com
Pamintuan, Rommel pnoyrcp@msn.com
Reynoso, Ryan Ryonnn@gmail.com
Smiecinski, Peter Sk8terx010@aol.com
Vincent, Brian brianvinc@hotmail.com
Webber, Conor conorwebber@mac.com
Wong, Nicolas nwong1991@gmail.com

#### 2010 Spring Semester - Instructor Jeff Jensen

Student Family Name, First Name Preferred Email Picture
Agpawa, Leo leoagpawa@gmail.com
Almosawy, Jaffer j.almosawy@live.com
Ayala, Johanan "Isaac" ayala702@yahoo.com
Filter, Elizabeth "Liz" littlelizf89@aim.com
Franco-Rivas, Humberto "Bert" wario2060@hotmail.com
Goerl, Ryan ryangoerl@gmail.com
Kaur, Gurtarpreet gurtar_kaur@yahoo.com
Leon, Joseph kxrider18@aim.com
Naccarato, Blake blake.naccarato@gmail.com
Natale, Nicholas hatnick@aol.com
Palmer, Joshua jjpalmer81@gmail.com
Villarosa, Manuel "Manny" mmvillarosa@hotmail.com

#### 2010 Spring Semester - Instructor Jeff Jensen

Student Family Name, First Name Preferred Email Picture
Avery, William whythefxcknot@aol.com
buzzoneb@gmail.com
Demarco, Jake demarcoid@yahoo.com
Gebremichael, Negasi hiyab29082008@yahoo.com
ksgroneman@msn.com
Heraypur, Aria aria_heraypur@hotmail.com
Holcomb, Ronald rholcomb3@gmail.com
Inos, Vincent vinceinos@gmail.com
Laramore, Edith elaramore@gmail.com
Perez, Geraldine g.joannaperez@hotmail.com
Pollock, Scott pollock.scottj@gmail.com
Teran, Emanuel "Alex" ax.te@hotmail.com
vazlop90@gmail.com

#### Surveying Parties/Groups

1. Nicholas, Luky, Reese, Rommel, Peter
2. Brian, Alex, Tanner, Jason, Roxanne
3. Carlson, Pisani, Adrian, Jesus, Hugo
4. Ricardo, Allison, Maryna, Robert, Aly
5. Dimas, Ryan, Lawrence, Alfredo, Conor, Hooman

• Grades are always due on the Tuesday following the last final exam by 4:00pm. Please check with your units, as they may have set an earlier due date than the Registrar's Office
• L-Number/PIDN: L000577789
• any problems, contact Ruth.Garay@unlv.edu, voice 702-895-3372 or Jim, voice 702-895-0892
• College of Engineering Email: http://mail.egr.unlv.edu
• UNLV Email: http://rebelmail.unlv.edu

#### Web Campus Support

• Call the OIT Help Desk at 702-895-0777 and use option 2 for Web Campus
• Courses should automatically be the first day of class but can request them to be added sooner, send an email to ithelp@unlv.edu and use a subject "adding a course onto web campus account"
• How do I add a teaching assistant to the web campus account?
• How do I use a login besides my L# (L000577789) and normal-web?

• C#: C000136261
• Employee ID: 000074476
• CSN Webmail: webmail.csn.edu
• CSN email: jeffery.jensen@csn.edu and voice: 702-651-4947 (Bob Diaz)
• FERPA Online Training completed on 12/15/2011
• Autodesk Training Videos

#### CSN VPN Account

• https://access.csn.edu
• H:\ Drive, need to map a network drive to \\otscyfs01.csn.edu\users\jeffery.jensen
• J:\ Drive, need to map a network drive to \\otscyfs01.csn.edu\users\departments

## Survey Equipment

• UNLV Surveying Contacts
• Allen Sampson - sampson@ce.unlv.edu is the supervisor over the College of Civil Engineering survey equipment
• GPS
• UNLV Facilities Management
• Ken Hughes, Construction Project Coordinator II (friend of Vern Little) voice: 895-5480, mobile: 301-1938, email: ken.hughes@unlv.edu
• Tad McDowell, Director of Parking & Transportation Services, voice: 703-895-5531, email: tad.mcdowell@unlv.edu
• Proposed - R8 GPS Receiver Model 1, 3 units of Trimble M3 Total Stations and 1 TSC2 Survey Controller
• \$19000 (PO-UNLV-Monsen-R8-M3-TSC2-05072010.pdf)
• add 4 tape measures in decimal feet
• ensure M3 comes with poles and prisms
• add a barometer for Sokkia SET6, I think the M3 already have a built in barometer
• Approved - Trimble R8 GNSS Rover, TSC2 Controller and misc equipment
• Trimble R8 GNSS
• Trimble R8 GPS (Model 1)
• Datasheet (TrimbleR8Datasheet.pdf)
• User's Guide: R8GNSS-R6-5800_364_UserGuide.pdf
• Serial Number: 4451142125
• UNLV Purchase Order (PO#21002616)
• This R8 GPS unit is better than the Trimble 5800 but not as good as the R8 GNSS (support the Russian GLONASS satellites)
• Signals: L1, L2, L2C (L2 Civil Signal)
• GPS Signal Frequencies (obtain from the front inside cover of Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf)
Code Frequency (MHz)
C/A 1.023
P 10.23
L1 1575.42
L2 1227.60
L5 1176.45
• Online Positioning User Service ( OPUS) antenna type: TRM_R8
• Trimble TSC2 Controller
• Serial Number: SS08A03023
• UNLV Purchase Order (PO#21002615)
• Version: 12.45 build: 077
• Authorization key: 7A8T-OXCX-3F4T-HOBO
• Software Warranty Expiry: 12/2010
• Trimble Survey Controller (TSC2) Support
• User's Guide: TSCv1246_Help_English.pdf (from UNLV) or TSCv1246_Help_English.pdf (from Trimble)
• Notes
• Trimble Data must be stored under My Device -> Trimble Data and can only have one level below Trimble Data. All Map data must be in the same folder as the Job.
• Map Files
• graphic representation of features - points, lines, arcs (ESRI shapefiles .shp or AutoCAD (ASCII) .dxf), alignments/Trimble roads (.rxl), digital terrain models (.dtm .ttm). These must all be stored in the current project folder to access.
• It appears aerial photos are not supported
• Trimble Survey Controller (TSC) Help -> Job Operations -> Map of Current Job and Active Map
• Questions
• What is the benefit of using a Map File?
• How does TSC handle the projection information for a shapefile?
• Can Civil 3D Surface be exported into a .dtm or .ttm format and displayed in TSC?
• Great Basin College
• Trimble provided several Relectorless Total Stations with the necessary accessories to outfit two survey crews. The Nevada Association of Land Surveyors had monies in their "National Society of Professional Surveyors" equipment fund to purchase the equipment for the college at a very nominal fee.
• Dr. James Elithorp, Land Survey/Geomatics Program Coordinator, voice: 775-753-2240, email: jamese@gwmail.gbcnv.edu
• Software
• Automatic Levels
• 5 automatic levels
• Pentax AL-M2c, Serial Numbers: 821402, 821406, 821407, 821409, and 821410.
• Level Rods
• 3 Fiberglass Telescoping Leveling Rods, CR-13-T, Crain Enterprises, Inc Mound City, IL. On 10 Jan 2008 Trimble Navigation Ltd purchased Crain Enterprises Inc (see Trimble buys Crain Enterprises)
• Tripods
• 4 - Pentax Tripods
• 2 - Ingenuity Inc Tripods
• 1 - Wild GST20 Tripod
• Invoice for Tripod leather straps, 3 fiberglass telescoping leveling rods, single job field books, tribrack adapter and a prism. (PO-UNLV-Monsen-Tripods.pdf)
• Electronic Level
• Spectra-Physics EL-1. Serial Number 19136. Manufactured April 1987. Model 1044.
• Prisms
• Omni Prisms - Optical Products, Inc. Phone: 949-833-3388
• Wild GPH1A snap on prism
• "Once known, the electrical center of the EDM can be shifted forward to compensate for the reflector constant. However, if an EDM instrument is being regularly used with several unmatched reflectors, this shift is impractical. In this instance, the offset for each reflector should be substracted from the observed distances to obtain corrected values." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Charles D. Ghilani and Paul R. Wolf, p. 158-9)
• Figure 6.16 Schematic of retroreflector where D is the depth of the prism
• Total Stations
• Sokkia SET6, Serial Number: D20833
• SET6 Instrument Parameters
• Error Codes
• b. dEd is displayed, the battery voltage is too low for measurement. Turn the power switch off and re-charge the battery. (This display also occurs during measurement when the battery power is low.) Sokkia SET6 Operator's Manual, p. 13
• V 0 display indicates that the instrument is ready for vertical circle indexing. Sokkia SET6 Operator's Manual, p. 13
• Indexing the vertical circle - Loosen the vertical clamp and rotate/flop the telescope to break the horizontal plane or can just completely rotate the telescope around 360° in the vertical. Indexing occurs when the objective lens crosses the horizontal plane in face left. The audio tone sounds and the vertical angle (V) is displayed.
• Angle measurement can now begin. The instrument is now in the theodolite mode. Each time the instrument is switched on, the vertical index must be redetermined. Sokkia SET6 Operator's Manual, p. 15
• E 114, E 115, E 116 or E 117 is displayed when the tilt angle exceeds 10'. Re-level the SET6 using the plate level bubble. Sokkia SET6 Operator's Manual, p. 13
• Battery Power - when the SET6 power switch is ON and after successful completion of the checks, the batter power is displayed as a numeric code for three seconds.
• Error Code Battery Life Remaining in
(Angle only mode)
Battery Life Remaining in
(Distance and Angle mode)
bA 0 Less than 1 hr 20 min Less than 30 min
bA 1 1 hr 20 min to 11 hrs 50 min 30 min to 2 hrs 30 min
bA 2 11 hrs 50 min to 20 hrs 50 min 2 hrs 30 min to 2 hrs 50 min
bA 3 20 hrs 50 min to 21 hrs 40 min 2 hrs 50 min

• E 201 is displayed, the return signal is absent. In this situation, sight the prism correctly and remeasure. Sokkia SET6 Operator's Manual, p. 28
• Theodolites
• Pentax FX-1DE, Serial Numbers: 810868, 810857, 810808 (missing a case), 810774 and 810816
• Instruction Manual
• Horizontal angles, smallest reading is 20" (20 seconds)
• Purpose of Lower Tangent Screw and Lower Clamp Screw
• Used by the telescope cross-hairs to sight a point
• With the lower clamp screw loose, can roughly turn the theodolite onto a point and line up with the gun sight/collimator/peep sight.
• With the lower clamp screw tighten, can finely tune the telescope cross-hairs onto a point
• Purpose of Upper Tangent Screw and Upper Clamp Screw
• Used to zero out the theodolite when looking into the angle reading eyepiece. Also need to use the micrometer/micro knob to zero out the minutes and seconds in the angle display.

#### Guest Speakers

• Scott Hill, TRC Solutions. Mobile: 702-208-4766, Work: 702-248-6415, email: shill@trcsolutions.com, address: 1009 Whitney Ranch Dr, Henderson NV 89014
• Trent Keenan. Mobile: 702-596-3257
• Jan Van Sickle (GPS & GNSS for Geospatial Professionals video modules)

## Instructor To Do List

• Where is the NAVD88 datum in relationship to the topographic surface of the earth, the geoid and the WGS84 ellipsoid?
• Where is the NAD83 datum when moving positions from Lat/Long to ellipsoid to the Stateplane Grid?
• Lab Module Template
• Purpose or goal of the module, for example why are we teaching engineering students on how to use a theodolite?
• Student Outcomes - what do we want the student to know when they are done
• Procedures - for example steps to setting up a tripod
• Example Practice Problems
• Homework questions that support the lab topics
• Test to verify students obtain the desired outcome.
• Reading Materials - references to the textbook and DVD videos to enhance knowledge on the lab topic
• Time Frame - how many lectures and/or labs needed for the student to learn the materials
• Create Lab Modules for the following topics
• FE exam - survey questions (March 1, 2010)
• Setup a tripod (March 7, 2010)
• Using a Theodolite (March 14, 2010) - how to zero out the instrument, turn single and double angles, record measurements in the field book, how to calculate average measurement and adjust errors
• How to use the Chain/Steel Tape to measure distances
• Plumb Bob
• GPS
• Total Station
• Automatic Level - include benchmark books from the cities and counties
• Rotational Level
• Importing points to create a surface and topo map
• CAD - drafting from the field book notes and measurements
• Research Record of Surveys from the County Recorder's Office (can get from their website).
• Horizontal and Vertical Curves - how to layout
• Class Advisors - Ed Neumann and Barbara Luke (email: barbara.luke@unlv.edu voice: 702-895-1568)
• How to create a Civil 3D Field Book file (.fbk) from Trimble GPS or a total station instrument?

#### Surveying Topics on Exams

• NCEES - Civil FE exam specifications
• Civil Afternoon Session of Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam
• Angles, distances and trigonometry
• Area computations
• Closure
• Coordinate systems (e.g., GPS, state plane)
• Curves (vertical and horizontal)
• Earthwork and volume computations
• Level (e.g., differential, elevations, percent grades)
• approximately 11% of the test content is surveying questions
• FE sample questions - FEExam-Survey.docx

#### California PE Exam - Surveying

Description Percentage Number Assignments Assignment Worth Total Points
Lecture Homework 40% 14 30 400
Reading Assignments 17% 14 12 ~ 160
Quizes from DVD 17% 6 26 ~ 160
Exams (Mid-term and Final) 30% 3 (Midterm, Excel, Final) 100 300 230
Total 100% 1000

A 100%-93% 930
A- 92%-89% 890
B+ 88%-86% 860
B 85%-82% 820
B- 81%-79% 790
C+ 78-74% 740
C 73%-69% 690
C- 68%-65% 650
D 64%-60% 600
F 59%-0% <590

## Lecture Homework

#### Email Rules when submitting answers to homework assignments

• Email answers to class email address (formerly cee301spring08@gmail.com, cee301@egr.unlv.edu, cee301fall07@gmail.com )
• Email subject Line must contain Week number and name. Example Week 5 - John Doe
• Typically must attach a JPEG image, PDF or DWF of homework assignment. Each email must include all the .jpg images for that weeks assignment. For example if your Week 3 home is to do Module 3 and it has 4 exercises, I want one email with 4 attachments instead of 4 emails with one attachment each.
• Always use the same email account when submitting homework. Don't send email assignment from UNLV email account one week, next from a work email account, and then another time using a personal email account. Use one account only when corresponding with the Instructor.
• Item to email will identified below with the heading Email

#### Lecture Homework

1. Lecture Homework #1 (assigned week 1)
• bring headphones/earphones if you want to watch Survey & Layout DVD in class
• CEE121HW01-Worksheet.doc - Angle conversion and reading a ruler
• Create an Autodesk Community Student account at http://students.autodesk.com
• Know how to Transfer files between home/work and UNLV. Recommend using SSH, NetStorage, USB Thumbdrive, email or burning a CD
• Email send an email from your preferred email account to class email address Subject line must be as stated in the Email Rules above.
• Email a thumbnail picture of yourself
• Email members of your group, no more than 3 students per group
2. Lecture Homework #2 (assigned week 1)
• Webcampus: Tripod setup rule of thumb, determine the following 1) length of your foot/shoe 2) TripodX distance from lecture notes on Instrument Setup 3) InstrumentY height for the Total Station, 4) InstrumentY height for the Theodolite, 5) InstrumentY height for the Automatic Level, 6) rule of thumb, what body part is used to measure the height of a closed tripod (e.g. chin, shoulder, chest) to ensure a proper tripod setup?
3. Lecture Homework #3 (assigned week 2)
• Practice setting up a tripod in the field
• Webcampus: measure your pace distance. See class notes on Pacing
4. Lecture Homework #4 (assigned week 3)
• Webcampus: upload a scanned copy of your field notes which contain the following:
• Pick a minimum of 2 UNLV Survey points/monuments/benchmarks per person in your surveying party/group/crew. So if your group has 3 people, need a minimum of 2 x 3 = 6 points
• Determine the approximate distance between the selected points using your pacing skills.
• Hand draw a sketch on a landscape 8.5"x11" piece of paper. Reference the class lecture on proper field notes. Mainly, the right side of the page will have the field sketch and the left side of the page will have the pace measurements (i.e. tabulations).
5. Lecture Homework #5 (assigned week 3)
6. Lecture Homework #6 (assigned week 3)
• Webcampus: a scanned copy of your field notes from the in class assignment: with the survey field book/paper passed out in class, copy the level circuit/loop recordings from the textbook (see Chapter 5, p. 108 and class notes on Leveling). Note, you do not have to show the adjusted elevation calculations. Remember the UNLV Library has scanners.
• Email the solution to these problems on level loop field notes and reading a level rod - Level Field Notes from 1001 Solved Surveying Fundamentals Problems, 2nd Edition by Jan Van Sickle, PLS. ISBN-13 978-1-888577-12-9 Provide the values for U, V, W, X, Y and Z in the email.
• Perform one of the following level circuits which are located just south of the UNLV TBE building. Record measurements in your field book. Add a sketch of the site. Show a north arrow. Provide names of the group members. Have the Notekeeper (N) sign the bottom right corner of the field notes. Make a photo copy of your groups Field Notes for the given Level Loop and turn in by next Saturday.
• Check the following instruction Using calculators
• Email the solution to these problems (conversion between DMS and DD)
• Email a scanned copy of your field book (.pdf or .jpg) showing your closed traverse using a theodolite and chain/steel tape. This is just your raw field notes before you do the Compass Rule traverse adjustment.
• Balancing Angles - using your field notebook and textbook, recreate the Figure 10.1 sketch and calculate the adjustment of angles (Table 10.1). Use the class notes on Traverse - Balancing/Adjustment of Angles for the procedure. Email a scanned pdf or jpg image of your field notebook page.
• Email pdf of textbook closed traverse. Using AutoCAD Civil 3D and the class notes from CEE 301 - Drafting a Traverse recreate Figure 10.1 sketch from the textbook. Plot to a PDF using 8.5"x11" papersize and a viewport scale of 1"=200'. Label the bearing and distance of each line. Include your name, date and week# on the plot.
• Email scanned copy of Azimuth angles. Determine the Azimuth for each segment in the textbook (Figure 10.1 and Example 10.2 for Table 10.2). Draw a hand sketch of each point (A,B,C,D,E) showing the North Meridian line, the backsight point, the foresight point, and reference angle arrows.
• Email Excel spreadsheet of the Compass Rule used to adjust your UNLV loop (1, 2, 3, 4, or 5)
• Email a scanned copy of your field book showing the Compass Rule adjustment done by hand.
• Email a scanned copy of your field book showing the differential leveling on your UNLV loop (1, 2, 3, 4, or 5). Also include a copy of the stadia distances.
• Adjust the distances using the compass rule in the Textbook, Figure 10.1 page 240. Calculate the coordinate values for each point (A,B,C,D,E). Can submit a print out from Excel if used to calculate the coordinates (northing and eastings).
7. Lecture Homework #7 (assigned week 10)
• Email a scanned copy of your field book showing the differential leveling to determine the Finish Floor Elevation of Artemus Ham Concert Hall (HCH)
8. Lecture Homework #8 (assigned week 5)
• Email the area from Problem 12.22 in Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 321
• The (X,Y) coordinates (in feet) for a closed-polygon traverse ABCDEFA follow. A (1000.00, 1000.00), B (1661.73, 1002.89), C (1798.56, 1603.51), D (1289.82, 1623.69), E (1221.89, 1304.24) and F (1048.75, 1301.40). Calculate the area of the traverse by the method of coordinates.
• Email an Excel spreadsheet. Use Excel to solve Problem 12.22 above. See class notes on Area of a Closed Traverse - Coordinate Method
• Email a screen shot AutoCAD image of Problem 12.22 above. Draw the closed-polygon traverse using the POLYLINE (PLINE) command. Determine the area by selecting the properties of the traverse.
• should look similar to this
• ElemSurvey12th-Prob12_22.dwg
9. Lecture Homework #9
• Field Exercise: Total Station Topo (TopoSummer2010.vce)
• Email the answers from Steve Youngberg's Lecture on Public Land Survey System (PLSS) (Chapter 22 from textbook)
1. What is the name of the initial point that Nevada surveys are based on?
• Mount Charleston Base and Meridian
• Tahoe Peak Base and Meridian
• Mount Diablo Base and Meridian
• Gila and Salt River Base and Meridian
2. Charleston Boulevard is the south line of Township 20 South and is a standard parallel. Which parallel is it?
• Forth Standard Parallel South
• Fifth Standard Parallel South
• Eighth Standard Parallel South
• Tenth Standard Parallel South
3. How many miles south from the Initial Point is it (Charleston Blvd)?
• 96
• 120
• 150
• 240
4. What section is directly south of section 23?
• 22
• 24
• 25
• 26
5. What are the numbers of sections which usually have irregular areas in a typical Township?
• 1-6 and 7-12
• 1-7, 18,19,30 and 31
• 1,12,13,24,25, and 31-36
• 1-6 and 31-36
6. What are the dimensions of the sides, in feet, of a parcel described as the SE 1/4, NW 1/4, Section 14?
• 660’x660’
• 1000’x1000’
• 1320’x1320’
• 2640’x2640’
7. A father gave his son the S 3/4 of the SE 1/4 of a regular 1/4 section. What is the area of the parcel?
• 30 acres
• 40 acres
• 120 acres
• 160 acres
10. Lecture Homework #10
11. Lecture Homework #11
• Email a pdf map created in Google Earth Pro of the State Plane Coordinate Zones from the usstpln83.shp. Add a placemark showing the origin of the Nevada East Zone (without applying a false northing and easting). It should look similar to this.
12. Lecture Homework #12
13. Lecture Homework #13
• For the following circular curves having a radius R, what is their degree of curvature by (1) arc definition and (2) chord definition? Given answers in Degrees, Minutes and Seconds
1. 300.00 ft (answer Da = 19°05'55" and Dc = 19°11'17")
2. 1500.00 ft (answer Da = 3°49'11" and Dc = 3°49'14")
3. 4000.00 ft (answer Da = 1°25'57" and Dc = 1°25'58")
14. Lecture Homework #14

## Final Exam

Send answers to the class email by Friday, 7 May 2010 at 10:00am

1. A differential leveling loop began and closed on BM Tree (elevation 323.48 ft). The plus sight and minus sight distances were kept approximately equal. Readings (in feet) listed in the order taken are 3.18 (BS) on BM Tree, 4.76 (FS) and 2.44 (BS) on TP1, 3.05 (FS) and 6.63 (BS) on BM X, 3.64 (FS) and 2.35 (BS) on TP2, and 3.07 (FS) on BM Tree. Prepare, check, and adjust the notes.
1. What is the misclosure? A) 0.02 ft B) 0.08 ft C) 8 feet D) 0
2. How many instrument setups were done? A) 1 setup B) 4 setups C) 8 setups D) 0 setups
3. What is the correction per setup (ratio of misclosure/number of instrument setups)? A) 0.02 ft B) -0.002 ft C) -0.2 ft D) 2 ft
• Elementary Surveying, 12 Edition by Ghilani and Wolf. Chapter 5 - Leveling - Field Procedures and Computations, problem 5.11
• Class Notes - Leveling
2. Create field notes and a sketch from the data in Elementary Surveying, 12 Edition by Ghilani and Wolf. Chapter 10 - Traverse Computations, problem 10.6 and 10.7
• Create the sketch using AutoCAD Civil 3D. Dimension the unadjusted interior angles. Plot to PDF or make a screenshot image of the drawing. Attach this to your email when submitting the answers.
• Class Notes - Traverse Field Notes
3. Balance the following interior angles (angles-to-the-right) of a five-sided closed polygon traverse using method 1 of Section 10.2 If the azimuth of side AB is fixed at 48°31'43", calculate the azimuths of the remaining sides. A = 41°09'44", B = 200°52'14", C = 124°57'26", D = 64°28'16", E = 108°32'10", (note: Line BC bears NE)
1. What is the misclosure? A) 9" B) 10" C) 11" or D) 12"
2. What is the adjusted angle for D? A) 64°28'16" B) 64°28'18" C) 108°32'12" D) 64°28'20"
• Notes
• Elementary Surveying, 12 Edition by Ghilani and Wolf. Chapter 10 - Traverse Computations, Problem 10.6
• Class Notes - Traverse - Balancing/Adjustment of Angles
• Remember, once you have adjusted the interior angles, the starting and end point still will not match. Need to do the compass (Bowditch) rule to adjust the lengths.
4. Compute departures and latitudes, linear misclosure, and relative precision for the traverse of Problem 10.6 if the lengths of the sides (in feet) are as follows: AB = 150.50, BC = 610.39, CD = 485.14, DE = 735.35, and EA = 647.34 (Note: assume units of feet for all distances)
1. What is the sum of lengths? A) 2601.27 ft B) 2628.72 ft 2601.72 ft C) 2600.27 ft or D) 2600.72 ft (answer was off by 27 ft, correct answer is B = 2628.72 ft)
2. What is the sum of departures? A) 0.03 ft B) 0.019 ft C) -0.042 ft or D) 0.046 ft (remember if the departure value is positive then you need to substract your correction in departure)
3. What is the sum of latitudes? A) 0.042 ft B) -0.042 ft C) 0.024 ft or D) -0.24 ft (remember if the latitude value is negative then you need to add your correction in latitudes) then you need to substract your correction in departure)
4. What is the Linear Misclosure? A) 0.03 ft B) 0.046 ft C) 0.064 ft or D) 0
5. What is the Relative Precision? A) 1:57146 1:10000 B) 1:60000 1:56000 C) 1:57100 1:65000 or D) 1:57000 1:100000 (calculated relative precision is 1:57146 but needs to be rounded to what precision?)
5. Using the compass (Bowditch) rule, adjust the departures and latitudes of the traverse in Problem 10.7. If the coordinates of station A are Eastings (X) = 20,000 ft and Northings (Y) = 15,000 ft calculate coordinates for the other stations and then the lengths and azimuths of lines AD and EB.
1. Length of AD? A) 1000 ft B) 1123.58 ft C) 2311.58 ft or D) 543.14 ft
2. Azimuth AD? A) 30° B) 45°42'14" C) 45°14'43" or D) 176°51'29"
3. Length of EB? A) 1000 ft B) 543.14 ft C) 453.14 ft or D) 1123.58 ft
4. Azimuth EB? A) 45°42'14" B) 176°51'29" C) 376°51'29" D) 124°57'28" (hint: Bearing EB is S 3°08'31" E)
6. You are working on neighborhood preservation project to rebuild an antiquated school, moderize it like the more sophisticated A-Tech High School. Please find the closest NGS Datasheet in the Valley to the intersection of Eastern and Karen. Note, this NGS survey control point must exist, that is the LAST_COND cannot be DESTROYED or MARK NOT FOUND. Also, for safety reason, please don't try to visit the sight in attempts to find the monument/benchmark :-)
1. What is the Permanent IDentifier (PID) station name? A) AC3363, B) GR1312, C) GR1954, D) 2653
2. What is the NAVD 88 elevation in feet at this point? A) 556.318, B) 1825.12, C) 1852.91, D) 2012
• Class Notes: NGS Data Sheet
• Tip: to import an ESRI Shapefile into Google Earth Pro, use File -> Import... then change the file type to ESRI Shape (*.shp).

## Introduction to Surveying

1. Definition of Surveying
2. Math Review

#### Definition of Surveying

• Field Measurements
• "Surveying, which is also interchangeably called geomatics, has traditionally been defined as the science, art, and technology of determining the relative positions of points above, on, or beneath the Earth's surface, or of establishing such points. In a more general sense, however, surveying (geomatics) can be regarded as that discipline which encompasses all methods for measuring and collecting information about the physical earth and our environment, processing that information, and disseminating a variety of resulting products to a wide range of clients." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Charles D. Ghilani and Paul R. Wolf, p. 1)
• Geodetic Surveys
• "In geodetic surveying, the curved surface of the Earth is considered by performing the computations on an ellipsoid (curved surface approximating the size and shape of the Earth)" (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Charles D. Ghilani and Paul R. Wolf, p. 7)
• Plane Surveys
• "In plane surveying, except for leveling, the reference base for fieldwork and computations is assumed to be a flat horizontal surface. The direction of a plumb line (and thus gravity) is considered parallel throughout the survey region, and all observed angles are presumed to be plane angles. For areas of limited size, the surface of our vast ellipsoid is actually nearly flat. On a line 5 mi long, the ellipsoidal arc and chord lengths differ by only about 0.02 ft." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Charles D. Ghilani and Paul R. Wolf, p. 9)

### Trigonometry and Coordinate Geometry Review

#### Oblique Triangle

• A° + B° + C° = 180° (for a triangle on a flat plane)

#### Law of Cosines

• a2 = b2 + c2 - 2bc cos A
• b2 = a2 + c2 - 2ac cos B
• c2 = a2 + b2 - 2ab cos C
Given Required Formula
bh Area bh/2
(Side, Side, Side)
a,b,c
Area Area = (s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c))0.5
s = 0.5(a + b + c)
(Side, Angle, Side)
C°,a,b
Area Area = 0.5 ab sin C°
(angle, angle, angle)
A°,B°,C°
Area infinite results

#### Area of a Triangle

• How to calculate the area of an oblique triangle (triangle that does not contain a right angle)

#### Area of a Closed Traverse - Coordinate Method

• "When the coordinates of the stations of a closed traverse are known, it is a simple matter to computer the area within the traverse, either by computer or handheld calculator." (Surveying Principles and Applications, 8th Edition by Barry Kavanagh, p. 215)
• Math Open Reference - Area of a Polygon (Coordinate Geometry)
• "Because of the effects of error propagation, it is important to remember that it is better to be conservative when expressing areas, and thus a phrase such as '6.258 acres more or less' is often adopted, especially when writing property descriptions." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 309)
• Area by Coordinates: "The areas of trapezoids are, in effect, being summed with appropriate algebraic signs. The result of the computation is double the area, which must be divided by 2." (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanzafama, and Kissam. p. 157-8)
• "State simply, the double area of a closed traverse is the algebraic sum of each X coordinate multiplied by the difference between the Y coordinates of the adjacent stations. The double area is divided by 2 to determine the final area. This rule applies to a traverse with any number of sides. The final area can result in a positive or negative number, reflecting only the direction of computation (clockwise or counterclockwise). The physical area is, of course, positive; there is no such thing as a negative area." (Surveying Principles and Applications, 8th Edition by Barry Kavanagh, p. 215)
• Area by Coordinates formula
• n = number of vertices in the polygon
• xnyn = x0y0 where the first and last vertices are the same
• vertices must be ordered clockwise (negative area) or counterclockwise (postive area)
• "The subscript n stands for the total number of stations in the traverse. The coordinates for the first station are repeated at the end of the sequence, but it really does not matter which is considered the first station..." (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanzafama, and Kissam. p. 157-8)

#### Sigificant Figures

• "In recording observations, an indication of the accuracy attained is the number of digits (significant figures) recorded. By definition, the number of significant figures in any observed value includes the positive (certain) digits plus one (only one) digit that is estimated or rounded off, and therefore questionable. For example, a distance measured with a tape whose smallest graduations are 0.01 ft, and recorded as 73.52 ft, is said to have four significant figures; in this case the first three digits are certain, and the last is rounded off and is therefore questionable but still significant." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 27)
• "...if data are recorded with more figures than those that are significant, false precision will be implied." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 27)
• "The number of significant figures is often confused with the number of decimal places. Decimal places may have to be used to maintain the correct number of significant figures, but in themselves they do not indicate significant figures. Some examples follow:

Two significant figures: 24, 2.4, 0.24, 0.0024, 0.020, 2.4 X 103 (2400)
Three significant figures: 364, 36.4, 0.000364, 0.0240, 2.40 X 103 (2400)
Four significant figures: 7621, 76.21, 0.0007621, 24.00, 2.400 X 103 (2400)

Zeros at the end of an integral value may cause difficulty because they may or may not be significant. For example, in a value expressed as 2400, it is not known how many figures are significant; there may be two, three, or four, and therefore definite rules must be followed to eliminate the ambiguity. The preferred method of eliminating this uncertainity is to express the value in terms of powers of 10. The significant figures in the measurement are then written as a number between 1 and 10, including the correct number of zeros at the end, and annexing a power of 10 places the decimal point. As an example, 2400 becomes 2.400 X (10)3 if both zeros are significant, 2.40 X (10)3 if one is, and 2.4 X (10)3 if there are only two significant figures." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 27-28)

#### Angles

• How to add Angles in DMS format? Recommend converting to DD, then add, and then convert back to DMS
• Convert Decimal Degrees (DD) to Degrees Minutes Seconds (DMS)
• Convert Degrees Minutes Seconds (DMS) to Decimal Degrees (DD)

#### Microsoft Calculator

• Has the ability to convert between DD and DMS
• Must use Scientific View (Menu bar: View -> Scientific)

#### TSC2 Calculator

• How to open the Calculator program on the TSC2. Within Trimble Survey Controller, click Cogo and then Calculator
• Calculator Settings, click the checkbox button to set the Calculator mode into Standard or RPN (default)
• To enter angles in Degrees Minutes Seconds format, type the degrees value then click the ° ' " button. Then type in the minutes value and again click the ° ' " button. Finally type in the seconds value and click the ° ' " button.

### Matrices

#### Multiply (Product) of two Matrices

• "The matrix multiplication is not commutative, the order in which matrices are multiplied is important. In fact, this little setback is a major problem in playing around with matrices. This is something that you must always be careful with." (S.O.S. Math - Multiplication of Matrices)

## Horizontal Curves

#### Types of Horizontal Curveys

• Horizontal Curves - "curves used in horizontal planes to connect two straight tangent sections" (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 703)
• Simple Curve
• "A simple curve is a circular arc connecting two tangents (straight sections)." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 703)
• Compound Curve
• "A compound curve is composed of two or more circular arcs of different radii tangent to each other, with their centers on the same side of the alignment.... often used on exit and entrance ramps of interstate highways and expressways, although easement [spiral] curves are generally a better choice for these situations." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 703)
• Broken-back Curve
• Reverse Curve
• Often seen at street intersections which have a left turn lane and an island/median.
• Used to shift the travel direction of a vehicle. For example at standard parallels, the townships and ranges are adjusted to compensate for the curvature of the earth. This causes a shift in the section lines, that is they are no longer continuous. Problem is sections lines are typically the right of way of a street. To keep the movement of vehicles flowing, a reverse curve is often used in urban design.
• "A reverse curve consists of two circular arcs tangent to each other, with their centers on opposite sides of the alignment.... reverse curves are unsuitable for modern high-speed highway, rapid transit, and railroad traffic and should be avoided if possible." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 703)
• example of a rural highway with a reverse curve

• View Larger Map
• Spiral Curve
• Simple, Compound, Broken-back and Reverse Curves
• Compound and Reverse Curves

### Instrument Setup

• When placing the instrument on the tripod, it is customary to align the base of the instrument with the head of the tripod as shown in this figure.
• With the tripod still closed, loosen the tripod thumbscrews, extend the tripod legs until it stands about shoulder height. Then slightly tighten the thumbscrews.
• Height of SET6 Total Station (distance between base of instrument and eyepiece/scope)
• Height of Automatic Level
• Height of Theodolite
• Height of Tribrach
• How to calculate ideal tripod setup
• Determine eye height of the surveyor/instrument man. Using a tape measure, measure the vertical distance from the ground to the surveyor's eye height. Record this value as EyeY
• Determine the instrument height (will vary between equipment). Record this value as InstrumentY
• Tripod height (TripodY = EyeY - InstrumentY). Determine this height on your body, maybe it is your shoulder or chest height and use this as a rule of thumb when extending the tripod legs.
• using the Law of Sines and that the tripod metal shoes are tilted about 75°, calculate TripodX distance (TripodX = TripodY * sin15°/sin75°)
• Measure the length of your foot and use this as a rule of thumb to identify the distance between the ground monument and the tripod metal shoe.
• For a firm and secure tripod setup, the tripod metal shoes are inserted vertically into the ground. Note the angle of the metal shoe tips is about 75° from the horizontal, see figure below.
• Make a mental note of your foresight and backsight. When setting up the tripod want to avoid straddling one of the tripod legs to make a measurement. It is easy to bump/misalign the tripod if you straddle it.
• Rotate the tripod and hold the two legs closest to you. Place the 3rd leg about 1.5'-2.0' feet beyond the ground monument point. Then pull back the other two legs and place equal-distance from the ground monument point. The top of the tripod must be directly over the ground monument point.

#### Tripod Setup

• Background
• Almost impossible to setup a tripod at 1) a given height, 2) directly over a monument/point and 3) level. Typically disregard #1 and just use a tape measure to record the instrument height in the field notes. The following tripod setup procedure will address #2 and #3 requirements.

• Paul Holley Method of Tripod and Instrument Setup
• Only adjust 2 legs on the tripod. This will ensure the head plate of the tripod remains fixed over a point.
• Only adjust 2 thumbscrews (A and B on figure below) on the instrument. Do not adjust the third thumbscrew C.
• Before placing the instrument on the tripod and before storing the instrument in the case, check to see the screws are indexed.
• "On most instruments, the midpoint of the leveling screw is shown with a line on the screw body. When the top of the knob is on the line, an equal amount of rotations of the screw can be made up, and an equal amount down. Store your instrument with all leveling screws indexed." (Construction Surveying and Layout, 3rd Edition by Wesley G. Crawford, Creative Construction Publishing, Inc. p. 3-45)
• "The advantage of the three-screw leveling head system is that an instrument can be leveled more quickly. It is indeed quicker if a systematic approach to leveling the instrument is followed. Persons have been observed going around in circles trying to level this type of system because they were using it improperly." (Construction Surveying and Layout, 3rd Edition by Wesley G. Crawford, Creative Construction Publishing, Inc. p. 3-47)

#### Procedure to measure horizontal angles using a Theodolite

• Step 0: setup, level the instrument and plumb over a monument/point
• Step 1: zero out the instrument
• A. loosen the upper and lower clamp screws
• B. rotate the black circle rotating ring until you read 0 in the graduation display cutout. Then tighten the upper clamp screw.
• C. look in the angle reading eyepiece and rotate micro knob until you read 00 on the center right side of the field view for clockwise horizontal angles. Note the micro knob can only fine tune 60 minutes (1°).
• D. look in the angle reading eyepiece and turn the upper tangent screw until the horizontal graduation line is in the center of the indexing lines. Note the upper tangent screw can turn ~ 6°
• E. the instrument should now be set to zero. Do not touch the micro knob, upper tangent screw and upper clamp screw until Step 3.
• Step 2: focus on your backsight
• A. with the upper clamp screw tighten and the lower clamp screw loose, rotate the theodolite/instrument until the object lens is pointing at the target. Use the clear white triangle in the collimator/gun sight/peep sight to line up the instrument with the backsight. Might need to rotate the telescope if the collimator/gun sight is on the bottom.
• B. tighten the lower clamp screw
• C. while looking in the eyepiece, rotate the eyepiece ring until the cross hairs/reticle appears as its maximum sharpness. In otherwords focus the cross hairs using the eyepiece ring.
• "If focusing is correct, the cross hairs will not move in relationship to the object when you move your eye slightly left and right while looking through the eyepiece. This will eliminate any parallax." (Pentax Theodolite FX-1DE Manual, p. 15)
• D. while looking in the eyepiece, rotate the focussing knob on the telescope until the backsight becomes clear/in focus.
• E. use the lower tangent screw to line up the vertical cross hair with the backsight. The lower tangent screw adjusts the telescope left and right.
• If you cannot rotate the lower tangent screw any more and still not on the backsight, then rotate the lower tangent screw back about 3° and then loosen the lower clamp screw and resight on the backsight. Tighten the lower clamp screw and then again try adjusting the lower tangent screw.
• F. (Optional) use the telescope clamp and upper tanget screw to line up the horizontal cross hair with backsight. This adjusts the telescope up and down.
• G. look in the angle reading eyepiece to double check the angle is zero.
• H. Double check the optical plummet is still centered on the ground mounment.
• Step 3: turn the angle
• A. loosen the upper clamp screw. This keeps the circle rotating ring fixed.
• B. rotate the instrument to the foresight. Line up the foresight with the collimator/gun sight/peep sight. Remember in a closed traverse it is customary to turn angles to the right, so rotate the instrument clockwise.
• C. tighten the upper clamp screw
• D. while looking in the eyepiece, rotate the focussing knob until the backsight becomes clear/in focus.
• E. use the upper tangent screw to line up the vertical cross hair with the foresight. This adjusts the telescope left and right.
• F. (Optional) use the telescope clamp screw and telescope tangent screw to line up the horizontal cross hair with the foresight. This adjusts the telescope up and down.
• G. look in the angle reading eyepiece, rotate the micro knob until the graduation line is in the center of the indexing lines. Read outloud the clockwise angle (angle turned to the right).
• H. record the horizontal angle in the Field Book
• Step 4: repeat the angle measurement (double angle) on backsight
• A. flip the telescope 180°, that is flop the scope. So if the collimator/gun sight is on top of the telescope it is now on the bottom. Might need to loosen the telescope clamp screw.
• B. loosen the lower clamp knob/screw and rotate the instrument back onto the backsight. Use the clear white triangle in the collimator/gun sight to line up the instrument with the backsight. Note the circle rotating ring will rotate with the instrument.
• C. Tighten the lower clamp knob/screw
• D. while looking in the eyepiece, rotate the focussing knob until the backsight becomes clear/in focus.
• E. use the lower tangent screw to line up the vertical cross hair with the backsight. This adjusts the telescope left and right.
• F. (Optional) use the telescope clamp and telescope tangent screw to line up the horizontal cross hair with backsight. This adjusts the telescope up and down.
• G. look in the angle reading eyepiece to double check the clockwise angle (angle turned to the right) is still reading the same angle measurement as it was on the foresight.
• Step 5: turn the double angle to the foresight
• A. loosen the upper clamp screw
• B. rotate the instrument to the foresight. Line up the foresight with the collimator/gun sight. Remember in a closed traverse it is customary to turn angles to the right, so rotate the instrument clockwise.
• C. tighten the upper clamp screw
• D. while looking in the eyepiece, rotate the focussing knob until the backsight becomes clear/in focus.
• E. use the upper tangent screw to line up the vertical cross hair with the foresight. This adjusts the telescope left and right.
• F. (Optional) use the telescope clamp and telescope tanget screw to line up the horizontal cross hair with backsight. This adjusts the telescope up and down.
• G. look in the angle reading eyepiece, rotate the micro knob until the graduation line is in the center of the indexing lines. Read outloud the clockwise angle (angle turned to the right).
• H. record the double angle in the Field Book.
• Step 6: divide the double angle by 2. Record this as the average/mean angle between the backsight (BS) and the foresight (FS).
• example: 77°56.8'/2 = (77 + 56.8' (1°/60'))/2 = 38°58'24"
• Step 7: relocate theodolite to next point
• "Just before taking up the transit, center the instrument on the foot plate, roughly equalize the leveling screws, clamp the upper motion, unclamp (or clamp lightly) the lower motion, point the telescope vertically up, and clamp the telescope lightly." (Surveying Theory and Practice, 3rd Edition by Raymond Davis and Francis Foote, p. 283)

## Positional Certainty

• "Positional certainty means a measurement of the relative accuracy of positions with respect to the location of a controlling monument." (NAC 625.651)
• Positional certainty: Horizontal and vertical components of certain land surveys (NAC 625.666)
• Topographic Surveys
• Engineering Design Surveys... ±0.03 ft to ±0.3 ft
• When submitting a Plat to Clark County, it must close within 0.01 ft according to Erik Denman, PLS (voice: 702-455-2103, edenman@co.clark.nv.us)
• "Because many existing products, including control datasheets in the NAD83 datum, refer to the 1984 standards, these will also be described. This eariler set of standards established three distinct orders of accuracy to govern traditional control surveys, given in descending order:"

#### Accuracy for Vertical Control Surveys

• "The relative accuracy required for a vertical control or leveling survey depends on its purpose. A set of standards and specifications has been prepared by the federal government for the national control network; this also serves as a guide for surveyors in private practice. There is a hierarchy of several different orders and classes for vertical accuracy standards. These standards are expressed in terms of an allowable error of closure, as well as relative accuracy between points." ( Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanazfama and Kissam, ISBN-13 978-0-13-500037-3, p. 100-1)
• "The allowable error of closure is a function of the length or total horizontal distance of the leveling line or circuit. The function is expressed in the following form: error = constant x √distance. The higher the order of accuracy, the smaller the constant." (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanazfama and Kissam, ISBN-13 978-0-13-500037-3, p. 100)

#### Accuracy for Horizontal Control Surveys

• "Relative Accuracy for horizontal distances, the ratio of the error of closure to the actual distance is called the relative accuracy. (In some other textbooks, it is also referred to as the degree of accuracy, order of accuracy, accuracy ratio, relative precision or just plain precision. No matter what it is called, the concept is essentially the same.)" (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanazfama and Kissam, ISBN-13 978-0-13-500037-3, p. 28)
• "Distance measurements of very high precision, such as made with EDMIs, may be characterized in terms of parts per million (ppm) of accuracy. For example, a relative accuracy of 5 ppm is equivalent to the ratio 5:1,000,000, or 1:200,000. In a distance of, say 1 km, or 1000 m, an accuracy of 5 ppm would be caused by an error of 5 mm[i.e., 1:(1000 m/5 mm) = 1:(1,000,000 mm/5 mm) = 1:200,000]." (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanazfama and Kissam, ISBN-13 978-0-13-500037-3, p. 29)

#### Linear Error of Closure (LEOC)

• "The linear error of closure is the net accumulation of the random errors associated with the traverse measurements." (Surveying with Construction Applications, 7th Ed by Barry F. Kavanagh, p. 172)
• "After measuring 3739 feet, the traverse had an LEOC of 0.1131 feet. Expressed as a ratio, 1 foot in 33000 feet means that if the field crew had measured 33000 feet using the same techniques and precision, they would have been off 1 foot." (Construction Surveying and Layout, 3rd Edition by Wesley G. Crawford, Creative Construction Publishing, Inc. p. 14-24)
• "When writing the specification for a survey, it is very impractical to specify the exact degree of accuracy that is to be attained in each of the measurements. For this reason, specifications are based on the minimum degree of accuracy for the particular survey. The range between the allowed degrees of accuracy is known as an order of accuracy. The orders of accuracy for surveys are called first order, second order, third order, and lower order. The measurements for first-order surveys are the most accurate, and the measurements for the other orders are progressively less accurate." (Introductory Surveying - Schaum's Outlines by James R. Wirshing and Roy H. Wirshing. ISBN-13: 978-0-07-071124-2, p. 88)

#### ALTA/ACSM Land Title Surveys

• Allowable Relative Positional Accuracy for Measurements Controlling Land Boundaries on ALTA/ACSM Land Title Surveys

## Field Notes

#### Field Notes - Background

• Considered to be one of the most important aspects of a survey
• Must be recorded at the time of the survey
• Record field notes with a pencil
• "Recording Data - A 4H pencil, well pointed, should be used. Because of its simplicity, Reinhardt's style of slope lettering (Fig. 76a) is generally conceded to be the best form of lettering for taking notes rapidly and neatly." (Surveying Theory and Practice 3rd Edition by Raymond E. Davis and Francis S. Foote, p. 45, also see 6th Edition, p. 55-6)
• Reinhardt Lettering
• "A hard pencil- 4H or harder- should be used to prevent smearing. The notebook should be of good quality, since it is subjected to hard usage. No erasures should be made, because such notes will be under suspicion of having been altered. If an error is made, a line should be drawn through the incorrect value and the new value should be inserted above." (Surveying, 10th Edition by Francis H. Moffitt and John D. Bossler, p. 9)
• Digital photos may be attached to the field notes as supporting info
• "If corrections to the notes are necessary, a line will be drawn through the error (without obscuring it) and the correct value or information written adjacent to it. Any entries made to the field notes subsequent to the actual survey should be shown in RED." (ODOT Survey Field Note Standards p. 2)
• "Each time the instrument is set up the field note will contain a 'Setup Line'. This will include: Instrument @ Point (#), height of instrument, description of occupied point, backsight @ point (#), description of backsight point, and height of backsight target (ODOT Survey Field Note Standards p. 3)
• Oregon Dept of Transportation - Survey Field Note Standards

#### Field Notes - Outside Cover and Title Page

• Outside Cover
• Title Page (1st inside page)
1. title sheet (first page) to include
• full names of all crew members. Crew member initials can then be on the subsequent pages
• Project name
• Location
• Description
• Date
• Equipment used
2. Contact info of Notebook Owner
• "Letter the notebook owner's name and address on the cover and first inside page using permanent ink. Number all field books for record purposes." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Charles D. Ghilani and Paul R. Wolf, p. 35)
• "A neat title should be made either on the flyleaf or on the cover, showing the owner of the notebook, the number and name of the course, and the year in which the notes are taken. Two or three pages should be left in the front of the book for a table of contents, and the table of contents should always be kept up to date. The remaining pages of the book should be numbered, with one number assigned to each two facing pages, or 'spread.'" (Surveying Theory and Practice, 3rd Edition by Raymond Davis and Francis Foote, p. 45-6)
• "To permit ready location of desired data, each field book must have a table of contents that is kept current daily. In practice, surveyors cross-index their notes on days when fieldwork is impossible." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Charles D. Ghilani and Paul R. Wolf, p. 34)
4. Number the upper-right corner of each right-sided page for the entire field book
• "Number the top right corner of the right-hand page only!" (Construction Surveying and Layout, 3rd Edition by Wesley G. Crawford, Creative Construction Publishing, Inc. p. 3-20)
• "Left- and right-hand pages of the field book are always used in pairs and carry the same number." (ICurrently I am in the middle of trying to put together a UNLV surveying organization, and my immediate consideration for the president was Scott Pollock due to his outstanding initiative and team-working skills.)
• "Left- and right-hand pages are practically always used in pairs and therefore carry the same page number." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Charles D. Ghilani and Paul R. Wolf, p. 34)

#### Field Notes - Left Page - Tabulations

1. Project Title
• UNLV CEE121 - Distance Pacing
• UNLV CEE121 - Distance Chaining/Steel Tape
• UNLV CEE121 - Differential Leveling
• UNLV CEE121 - Closed Traverse
• Distance Pacing
1. Station/Sta/Hub/Point
2. # Paces
3. Pace Length
4. Surveyor Initials
5. Distance/Dist
• Distance Chaining
1. Station/Sta/Hub/Point
2. Surveyor Initials
3. Distance/Dist
• Differential Leveling Fields
1. Station or Sta
2. Backsight or BS or +
3. Height of Instrument or HI
4. Foresight or FS or Forward Sight or -
5. Elevation or Elev
• Closed Loop Traverse Fields
1. Station or Sta or Hub
2. Distance or Dist
3. Single or Angle
4. Double
5. Avg or Average or Mean
3. Page Checks
• Differential Leveling Arithmetic Check
• "The arithmetic can be verified by performing the arithmetic check (page check). All BSs are added and all FSs are substracted. When the sum of BS is added to the original elecvation and then the sum of FS is subtracted from that total, the remainder should be the same as the final elevation calculated."

starting elevation + ΣBS - ΣFS = ending elevation

(Surveying Principles and Application, 8th Ed by Barry Kavanagh, p. 44)

#### Field Notes - Right Page - Sketches

1. Page number in upper right corner
2. Location
3. Date
4. Time (start and end)
5. Weather
6. Party Members
• Identify the instrument operator, rod person (φ, Greek lowercase letter phi) and note keeper (N) on each page of the field notes
7. Instrument Type and Serial Number
8. North arrow at the upper left corner of the right page
• "A meridian arrow is vital for all sketches. Have north at the top and on the left side of sketches, if possible." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Charles D. Ghilani and Paul R. Wolf, p. 35)
9. Vicinity Sketch should be included in the field notes. Provide the Latitude/Longitude positions in the field notes to help aid future surveyors to find the item. Describe the accuracy of the Lat/Long positions. Just enough detail to help future surveyors find the point but consume too much time.
• North arrow to point up or to the left of the page
10. Signature at the lower right corner
• "Sign surname and initials in the lower right-hand corner of the right page on all original notes. This places responsibility just as signing a check does." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Charles D. Ghilani and Paul R. Wolf, p. 36)

#### Field Notes - Differential Leveling - Example

• detailed descriptions for benchmarks and temporary benchmarks
• Rubbings, sketchs or photographs of the benchmark monument will be included in the last page of the notes
• Record elevations of benchmarks shown
• when leveling through existing points use the numbers previously assigned to those points

#### Field Notes - Closed Traverse - Example

• Detailed descriptions of monuments
• last page of network notes may have an overall schematic of the entire network
• "No electronically captured measurement data (horizontal angles, vertical angles or slope distances) should be recorded in the field notes." (ODOT Survey Field Note Standards p. 4)

#### Field Notes - Sideshots - Example

• Recommending keeping seperate from a closed traverse loop to avoid add the sideshot angles in the misclosure calculation
• Need to clearly identify where the instrument/transit is located
• Column/Field 1 - Station
• Column/Field 2 - From BS/To FS
• Column/Field 3 - Distance
• Column/Field 4 - Single
• Column/Field 5 - Double
• Column/Field 6 - Average or Mean

## Leveling

#### Leveling Background

• Also known has differential leveling or running level circuits or level loops
• Purpose is to determine the elevation (z value) of point A from point B. Typically point B, known as a benchmark has an established elevation above some datum (e.g. mean/average sea level). One can also just assume an elevation at point B and then run a level loop to determine a relative elevation of point A.
• "It is important in differential leveling to run closed circuits so that the accuracy of the work can be checked.... This can be done either by returning to the starting benchmark,... or by ending the circuit at another benchmark of equal or higher reliability. The final elevation should agree with the starting elevation if returning to the initial benchmark. The amount by which they differ is the loop misclosure." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Ed, Ghilani and Wolf, p. 107 and 109)
• "Figure 5.4 [below] illustrates the procedure followed in differential leveling. In the figure, the elevation of new BM Oak is to be determined by originating a leveling circuit at established BM Mil. In running this circuit, the first reading, a plus sight, is taken on the established benchmark. From it, the HI can be computed using Equation (4.4) [HI = elev + BS]. Then a minus sight is taken on the first intermediate point (called a turning point, and labeled TP 1 in the figure), and by Equation (4.5) [elev = HI - FS] its elevation is obtained. The process of taking a plus sight, followed by a minus sight, is repeated over and over until the circuit is completed." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Ed, Ghilani and Wolf, p. 106-7)
• STA = Station
• typically named either benchmark (BM) or turning point (TP)
• leveling rod is placed on these points, Not the automatical level instrument
• "Careful selection of stable turning points is essential to achieve accurate results. Steel turning pins and railroad spikes driven into firm ground make excellent turning points when permanent objects are not conveniently available." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Ed, Ghilani and Wolf, p. 107)
• H.I. = Height of Instrument
• this is the elevation of the level plane from the Leveling Instrument Not how tall the tripod and level's line of sight are
• very difficult to setup a tripod directly over a point at a given height.
• "In differential leveling, horizontal lenghths for the plus and minus sights should be made approximately equal.... Balancing plus and minus sights will eliminate errors due to instrument maladjustment (most important) and the combined effects of the Earth's curvature and refraction, as shown in Figure 5.6. Here e1 and e2 are the combined curvature and refraction errors for the plus and minus sights, respectively. If D1 and D2 are made equal, e1 and 32 are also equal. In calculations, e1 is added and e2 subtracted; thus, they cancel each other." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Ed, Ghilani and Wolf, p. 107-8)

#### Leveling - Level Rods

• Philadephia Rod (Elementary Surveying, 12th Ed, Ghilani and Wolf, p. 94)
• Step 0: have the rod man hold the philadephia rod over a bench mark (BM) or turning point (TP). Also plumb an automatic level mounted on tripod.
• Step 1: sight the automatic level to the rod. This is similar to sighting the barrel of a gun, it will approximately locate the rod within the level scope
• Step 2: focus the cross hairs
• Step 3: focus the automatic level
• Step 4: looking at the rod, ensure the vertical cross hair is parallel to the philadephia rod. If not, have the rod man make an adjustment.
• Step 5: have the rod man slowly rock the rod forwards and backwards from the automatic level
• Step 6: Instrument man will read outloud the lowest value
• Step 7: Philadephia Rod is in decimal feet. 0 feet is at the bottom of the rod and increases upwards. The figure below shows a 5 in the largest font size on the rod. This represents 5.00 feet. Notice how the tic mark is cut at a 45 degree angle at every 5 hundreds of a foot. The second largest font size on the rod (values 1,2,3,4 on the figure below) represent tenths of a foot. The hundredths of a foot intervals are not labeled. The small 5 highlighted in light green helps you read the rod from the level scope. It tells you that your within the 5 ft interval.
• Step 8: Stadia hairs. The shorter the distance between the two stadia hairs the closer the rod is to the automatic level. This is not used very much anymore.
• Example Level Loop Field Notes (pdf)
• Survey Field Book Paper (pdf)

• Two methods to adjust elevations: 1) by number of setups, or 2) length of level loop
• "There is really no way to ensure that a blunder is not made in the work without closing the level circuit one way or the other. It is much less expensive to find and correct a blunder in the field by closing the loop than to have to return and repeat the work at a later date (or worse, pay for the demolition, removal, and reconstruction of incorrectly placed structures). When the line of levels or level circuit is completed, there is usually some small difference between the given fixed elevation of the benchmark and the observed elevation arrived at in the leveling notes. If the arithmetic check works out all right, then it may be assumed that the discrepancy is due to random accidential errors. It is reasonable to expect that any new intermediate benchmarks set while running the levels are also in error to some degree." (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanazfama and Kissam, ISBN-13 978-0-13-500037-3, p. 102)
• "Suppose a leveling survey closes within the desired order and class of accuracy; in other words, there is an error of closure, but it is acceptable. The problem now is to distribute that total error of closure among the various intermediate benchmarks and to adjust the circuit so that it closes exactly (i.e., so that the observed benchmark elevation matches the given fixed elevation). In doing this for a single level line or circuit, it may be assumed that the elevation error at each point along the circuit or line of levels (and therefore the required correction) is directly proportional to the distance of the point from the starting benchmark". (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanazfama and Kissam, ISBN-13 978-0-13-500037-3, p. 102)
• "The relationships for adjusting the leveling line or circuit, then, may be summarized as follows:
• Adjustment of Elevations by the number of instrument setups

#### Benchmark Books

• City of North Las Vegas - Department of Public Works - Survey Division
• Clark County - Department of Public Works - Survey Division
• City of Henderson - Department of Public Works - Survey/Right-of-way Division
• City of Las Vegas

## Distances

• Pacing (1 person, knowledge of pace and ability to walk between two points)
• Recommend only counting your right foot. When starting a measurement/pace, the right foot is on zero, step with your left foot then follow with your right foot. Thus you have take 2 steps, but only count the pace as 1. Typical pace is between 4-6 feet.
• "Pacing consists of counting the number of steps, or paces, in a required distance. The length of an individual's pace must be determined first. This is best done by walking with natural steps back and forth over a level course at least 300 ft long and dividing the known distance by the average number of steps. For short distances, the length of each pace is needed, but the number of steps taken per 100 ft is desirable for checking long lines." (Elementary Surveying 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 128)
• "Pacing is one of the most valuable things learned in surveying since it has practical applications for everybody and requires no equipment. If the terrain is open and reasonably level, experienced pacers can measure distances of 100 ft or longer with an accuracy of 1/50 to 1/100 of the distance." (Elementary Surveying 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 128)
• Steel Tape/Chaining
• Equipment
1. need 2 people
2. a tape measure/steel tape/chain
3. Chaining pins or Taping pins to mark tape lengths in the field
4. Chalk/Marker/Keel/Carpenters Crayon to mark tape lengths on the pavement/concrete
5. field book and pencil
6. calculator
• Pull the zero end of the steel tape from the beginning/starting point of the measurement towards the ending point.
• "The more common type of tape has a total graduated length of 101 ft. It is marked from 0 to 100 by full feet in one direction, and has an additional foot preceding the zero mark graduated from 0 to 1 ft in tenths or in tenths and hundredths in the other direction. In measuring the last partial tape length of a line with this kind of tape, a full-foot graduation is held by the rear tapeperson at the last pin set [like the 87-ft mark in Figure 6.2(a)]. The actual foot mark held is the one that causes the graduations on the extra foot between zero and the tape end to straddle the closing point. The forward tapeperson reads the additional length of 0.68 ft beyond the zero mark. In the case illustrated, to ensure correct recording, the rear tapeperson calls '87.' The forward tapeperson repeats and adds the partial foot reading, calling '87.68." Since part of a foot has been added, this type of tape is known as an add tape." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 133)
• Field Notes
• EDM/Total Station (need 2 people, a total station and a prism pole)
• Inverse between GPS coordinates

#### Measure Horizontal Distance by Stadia from Automatic Level

• "Tacheometry (stadia is the more common term in the United States) is a surveying method used to quickly determine the horizontal distance to and elevation of a point. Stadia observations are obtained by sighting through a telescope equipped with two or more horizontal cross hairs at a known spacing. The apparent intercepted length between the top and bottom hairs is read on a graduated rod held vertically at the desired point. The distance from telescope to rod is found by proportional relationships in similar triangles. An accuracy of 1/500 of the distance is achieved with reasonable care." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 129)
• Horizontal Sights by Stadia - "In most transits the value of K as it is usually designated, is 100, and the value of the stadia constant, varies from approximately 0.8 to 1.2 ft... Manufactures show the exact value of the stadia constant on the instrument box... Many transits of recent manufacture have internally focusing telescopes. These instruments have a stadia constant of only a few tenths of a foot, and it is even more reasonable to neglect it." (Introductory Surveying by James R. Wirshing and Roy H. Wirshing, p. 45)
• Principles of Stadia Surveying - "Because the lines of sight diverge at the rate of 1-100 (stadia ratio 1:100), the vertical length observed between the stadia hairs on a level rod held 100 ft (or 100 m) away would be 1.00 ft (or 1.00 m). At a horizontal distance of 200 ft, the stadia intercept, as it is called, would be 2.00 ft, and so on. Because the distance of a vertical rod from the instrument is always 100 times the vertical intercept observed on the rod, horizontal distances between the rod and the instrument are easily determined when the transit telescope is level. For example, if the bottom stadia hair intercepts the rod at 2.00 ft, and 3.58 ft is observed at the top stadia hair, then the horizontal distance is simply 100 x (3.58 - 2.00) = 158 ft. The perpendicular distance D between the rod and the instrument station is always 100 x S, where S is the oberved stadia intercept." (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanzafama, and Kissam, p. 294-5)
• f = focal length of lens (a constant for any particular compound objective lens)
• i = spacing between stadia hairs (ab in Figure 17.7)
• f/i = stadia interval factor, usually 100 and denoted by K
• I = rod intercept (AB in Figure 17.7), also called stadia interval
• c = distance from instrument center (vertical axis) to objective lens center (varies slightly when focusing the objective lens for different sight lengths but is generally considered to be a constant)
• C = stadia constant = c + f
• d = distance from focal point F in front of telescope to face of rod
• D = distance from instrument center to rod face = C + d
• (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 472-473)

## Traverse

#### Traverse Field Notes

• "To avoid this confusion, it is recommended that a uniform procedure of always observing angles to the right be adopted and the direction of turning noted in the field book with a sketch." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Ed, Ghilani and Wolf, p. 167)
• "When angles are observed by repetition, the principle of double centering is also employed. As noted in Art. 6.29, on geometry of the transit, the lines and planes defined by vertical axis, horizontal axis, optical line of sight, and so on, theoretically have exact relationships with respect to one another. In practice, these relationships are not exact, even in the best-adjusted transit or theodolite, so that systematic instrumental errors are present (see Art. 6.55). One of the excellent features of the transit or theodolite is that the telescope can be transited about the horizontal axis so that observations can be made with the telescope in the direct and reversed positions (Art. 6.32). When operations on the instrument include a direct and reversed observation or setting, systematic instrumental errors will occur in opposite directions. Thus, if the average of the observations or settings is used, the effect of the systematic errors cancels. Implementation of this process is called double centerings or double sighting.

Another reason for repeating an angle is to decrease the possibility of mistakes in observations. Thus, the primary reasons for observing an angle by repetition with the telescope direct and reversed are to increase the accuracy of reading the angle, compensate for systematic errors, and eliminate mistakes." (Surveying Theory and Practice, 6th Ed, by Davis, Foote, Anderson and Mikhail, p. 230)
• Double-centering: a backsight is taken once with the telescope of the instrument in the direct position and once with the telescope in the inverted position. One point is set on the line described with the telescope in the direct position and another with the telescope in the inverted position. (1001 Solved Surveying Fundamentals Problems, 2nd Edition by Jan Van Sickle, PLS. ISBN-13 978-1-888577-12-9, p. 6-35)
• Average or "Mean angle is determined by halving the doubled angle." (Surveying Principles and Application, 8th Ed by Barry Kavanagh, p. 132)
• "Repeat the angle. After the initial angle has been booked, transit (plunge) the telescope, loosen the lower motion, and sight at the initial target, station B. The simple act of transiting the telescope between two sightings can eliminate nearly all the potential instrumental errors associated with the transit - when turning angles or producing a straight line.
The first three steps are now repeated, the only difference being that the telescope is now inverted and the initial horizontal angle setting is 101°24' instead of 0°00'. The angle that is read as a result of this repeating procedure should be approximately double the initial angle. This 'double' angle is booked, and then divided by two to find the mean value, which is also booked." (Surveying with Construction Applications, 7th Ed by Barry F. Kavanagh, p. 652)
• Misclosure calc
• "the geometric sum of the interior angles in an n-sided closed figure is (n-2)180°. For example, a five-sided figure has (5-2)180° = 540°; a seven-sided figure has (7-2_180° = 900°." (Surveying Principles and Application, 8th Ed by Barry Kavanagh, p. 192)

#### Traverse - Balancing/Adjustment of Angles

• Procedure - determine the misclosure in the survey and adjust the angles
• "It should be noted that, although the adjusted angles by both methods satisfy the geometric condition of a closed figure, they may be no nearer to the true values than before adjustment." (Elementary Surveying, 12th by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 242)
• Step 0: perform a closed loop traverse and record the interior angle measurements in a field book. The field book tabulations should look similar to this.
• Step 1: determine the misclosure
• "In elementary methods of traverse adjustment, the first step is to balance (adjust) the angles to the proper geometric total. For closed traverses, angle balancing is done readily since the total error is known, although its exact distribution is not. Angles of a closed traverse can be adjusted to the correct geometric total by applying one of two methods:" (Elementary Surveying, 12th by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 240)
1. Applying an average correction to each angle where observing conditions were approximately the same at all stations. The correction for each angle is found by dividing the total angular misclosure by the number of angles.
2. Making larger corrections to angles where poor observing conditions were present
• Step 2: divide misclosure by the number of angles in the traverse and round to the instrument's precision.
• "For work of ordinary precision, it is reasonable to adopt corrections that are even multiples of the smallest recorded digit or decimal place for the angle readings. Thus in this example, corrections to the nearest 1" will be made." (Elementary Surveying, 12th by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 241)
• Instrument's precision - if your theodolite can only measure to a precision of 20" then corrections are to the nearest 20".
• 11"/5 = 2.2"
• "since the angles were read in multiples of 1", applying corrections to the nearest tenth of a second would give false impression of their precision." (Elementary Surveying, 12th by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 241)
• Step 3 Option A (misclosure less than proper geometric total) determine successive additions
• Step 3 Option B (misclosure greater than proper geometric total) determine successive differences
• need to substract angles
• "successive differences (adjustments for each angle) are found by subtracting the preceding value in column (4) from the one being considered.
• Point (1) Measured Interior Angle (2) Multiples of Average Correction (3) Correction Rounded to Instrument Precision (4) Successive Differences (5) Adjusted Angle (6)
A 100°45'37" 2.2" = (11"/5) 2" = round(2.2") 2" = 2" - 0" (previous round value) 100°45'35" = 100°45'37" - 2"
B 231°23'43" 4.4" = (2.2" + 2.2") 4" = round(4.4") 2" = 4" - 2" (previous round value) 231°23'41" = 100°23'43" - 2"
C 17°12'59" 6.6" = (2.2" + 2.2" + 2.2") 7" = round(6.6") 3" = 7" - 4" (previous round value) 17°12'56" = 17°12'59" - 3"
D 89°03'28" 8.8" = (2.2" + 2.2" + 2.2" + 2.2") 9" = round(8.8") 2" = 9" - 7" (previous round value) 89°03'26" = 89°03'28" - 2"
E 101°34'24" 11.0" = (2.2" + 2.2" + 2.2" + 2.2" + 2.2") 11" = round(11.0") 2" = 11" - 9" (previous round value) 101°34'22" = 101°34'24" - 2"
∑ = 540°00'11"     ∑ = 11" ∑ = 540°00'00"
• Step 4: Check the sum of the corrections in column (5) equal the angular misclosure of the traverse
• Sum of successive differences: 11" = 2" + 2" + 3" + 2" + 2"
• misclosure: 11" = 540°00'11" - 540° proper geometric total
• Step 5: Adjust the angle
• add or subtract the successive differences (column 5) from the measured interior angle (column 2)
• Step 6: Check the sum of adjusted angles equal the proper geometric total
• this completes the adjustment of angles

#### Traverse - Preliminary Azimuths and Bearings

• Azimuth is measured from the North meridian line in a clockwise direction
• Azimuth angles are between 0°-360°
• If adding angles and the Azimuth is greater than 360°, just subtract 360°
• Azimuth Formula: Azimuth BC = Azimuth BA + Adjusted Observed Angle B
• Azimuth rule B = A + C ± 180°
B = azimuth of next course
A = azimuth of previous course
C = traverse angle

#### Computation of Preliminary Azimuth Using Tabular Method

also known as
Calculation Azimuth Figure
WAE 151°52'24" Need: Azimuth AE

Given: Azimuth AW = 234°17'18" and
Adjusted Observed Angle WAE = 151°52'24"

Find Azimuth AE by adding Azimuth AW + Angle WAE
= 234°17'18" + 151°52'24"
= 385°69'42" (note 69' = 1° + 9')
= 386°09'42" (cannot have Azimuth > 360°)
= 26°09'42" (386°09'42" - 360°)
26°09'42"
A 100°45'35" Need: Azimuth AB

Given: Azimuth AE = 26°09'42" and
Adjusted Observed Angle A = 100°45'35"

Find Azimuth AB by adding Azimuth AE + Observed Angle A
= 26°09'42" + 100°45'35"
= 126°54'77"
= 126°55'17" (77" = 60" + 17" = 1' + 17")
126°55'17"
B 231°23'41" Need: Azimuth BC

Given: Azimuth AB = 126°55'17" and
Adjusted Observed Angle B = 231°23'41"

Find Azimuth BA by adding 180° to Azimuth AB
180° + 126°55'17" = 306°55'17"

Azimuth BC = Azimuth BA + Observed Angle B
306°55'17" + 231°23'41" = 538°18'58"
note, cannot have an Azimuth greater than 360°
so need to subtract 360°
178°18'58" = (538°18'58" - 360°)
178°18'58"
C 17°12'56" Need: Azimuth CD

Given: Azimuth BC = 178°18'58" and
Adjusted Observed Angle C = 17°12'56"

Find Azimuth CB by adding 180° to Azimuth BC
180° + 178°18'58" = 358°18'58"

Azimuth CD = Azimuth CB + Observed Angle C
358°18'58" + 17°12'56" = 375°31'54"
note, cannot have an Azimuth greater than 360°
so need to subtract 360°
375°31'54" - 360° = 15°31'54"
15°31'54"
D 89°03'26" Need: Azimuth DE

Given: Azimuth CD = 15°31'54" and
Adjusted Observed Angle D = 89°03'26"

Find Azimuth DC by adding 180° to Azimuth CD
180° + 15°31'54" = 195°31'54"

Azimuth DE = Azimuth DC + Observed Angle D
195°31'54" + 89°03'26" = 284°35'20"
284°35'20"
E 101°34'22" Need: Azimuth EA

Given: Azimuth DE = 284°35'20" and
Adjusted Observed Angle E = 101°34'22"

Find Azimuth ED by adding 180° to Azimuth DE
180° + 284°35'20" = 464°35'20"
cannot have an Azimuth > 360°, therefore -360°
104°35'20" = (464°35'20" - 360°)

Azimuth EA = Azimuth ED + Observed Angle E
104°35'20" + 101°34'22" = 206°09'42"
206°09'42"
A check 100°45'35"   AB
126°55'17"

#### Traverse - Compass (Bowditch) Rule

• Background
• Latitudes (Y)
• Departures (X)
• "Departures and latitudes are merely X and Y components of a line in a rectangular grid system, sometimes referred to as ΔX and ΔY. In travese calculations, east departures(X) and north latitudes(Y) are considered plus; west depatures and south latitudes, minus. Azimuths (from north) used in computing departures and latitudes range from 0° to 360° and the algebraic signs of sines and cosines automatically produce the proper algebraic signs of the departures and latitudes." (Elementary Surveying, 12th by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 244)
• "A check is made of the computational process by algebraically summing the balanced departure and latitude columns to verify that each is zero. In these columns, if rounding off causes a small excess or deficiency, revising one of the correctinos to make the closure perfect eliminates this." (Elementary Surveying, 12th by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 249)
• NE bearing has a plus departure (X) and a plus latitude (Y)
• SE bearing has a plus departure (X) and a minus latitude (Y)
• SW bearing has a minus departure (X) and a minus latitude (Y)
• NW bearing has a minus departure (X) and a plus latitude (Y)
• Microsoft Excel Article ID 213449 - How to convert degrees/minutes/seconds angles to or from decimal angles in Excel 2000
• ESRI Technical Article ID 22455 - HowTo: Convert Degrees Minutes Seconds values to Decimal Degree values using the Field Calculator

#### Traverse - Compass (Bowditch) Rule: Computation of Departures and Latitudes

• "Because of errors in the observed traverse angles and distances, if one were to begin at point A of a closed-polygon traverse, like that of Figure 10.1, and progressively follow each course for its observed distance along its preliminary bearing or azimuth, one would finally return not to point A, but to some other nearby point A'. Point A' would be removed from A in an east-west direction by the departure misclosure and in a north-south direction by the latitude misclosure. The distance between A and A' is termed the linear misclosure of the traverse." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 245)
• Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, Table 10.3 Computation of Departures and Latitudes, p. 246
Station Preliminary
Azimuths (AZ)
DMS
Preliminary
Azimuths (AZ)
DD = (D) + (M/60) + (S/3600)
Length (L) Departure
L sin (AZ DD)
Latitude
L cos (AZ DD)
A 126°55'17" 126.9214° 647.25 517.451 -388.815
B 178°18'58" 178.3161° 203.03 5.966 -202.942
C 15°31'54" 15.5317° 720.35 192.889 694.045
D 284°35'20" 284.5889° 610.24 -590.565 153.708
E 206°09'42" 206.1617° 285.13 -125.715 -255.919
A     Σ = 2466.00 Σ = 0.026 Σ = 0.077
• Very Important: notice the Departure and Latitude distances are positive, this means we need to substract are corrections. In this case we overshot the point.
• If the Departure was negative, then we would have to add our corrections. In this case the undershot the point.

#### Traverse - Compass (Bowditch) Rule: Misclosure

• "In computing departures and latitudes, the data and results are usually listed in a standard tabular form, such as that shown in Table 10.3. The column headings and rulings save time and simplify checking. In Table 10.3, taking the algebraic sum of east (+) and west (-) departures gives the misclosure, 0.026 ft. Also, summing north (+) and south (-) latitudes gives the misclosure in latitude, 0.077 ft. Linear misclosure is the hypotenuse of a small triangle with sides of 0.026 ft and 0.077 ft and in this example its value is, by Equation (10.3)." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 246)

#### Traverse - Compass (Bowditch) Rule: Relative Precision

• "The relative precision of a traverse is expressed by a fraction that has the linear misclosure as its numerator and the traverse perimeter or total length as its denominator. The fraction that results from Equation (10.4) is then reduced to reciprocal form and the denominator rounded to the same number of significant figures as the numerator." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 245)

#### Traverse - Compass (Bowditch) Rule: Traverse Adjustment

• "For any closed traverse, the linear misclosure must be adjusted (or distributed) throughout the traverse to 'close' or 'balance' the figure. This is true even though the misclosure is negligible in plotting the traverse at map scale. There are several elementary methods available for traverse adjustment, but the one most commonly used is the compass rule (Bowditch method). This method is known as an arbitrary method since the corrections to the observations are applied irrespective of their uncertainties." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 246)
• "The compass, or Bowditch, rule adjusts the departures and latitudes of traverse courses in proportion to their lengths. Although not as the least-squares method, it does result in a logical distribution of misclosures. Corrections by this method are made according to the following rules:" (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 247)
• "Note that the algebraic signs of the corrections are opposite those of the respective misclosures." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 247)
• To calculate the Balanced Departure, just add/subtract the unadjusted departure to the correction in departure. Same applies to Balanced Latitude, just add/subtract the unadjusted latitude to the correction in latitude.
• "In Table 10.4, the departure and latitude corrections are shown in parentheses above their unadjusted values. These corrections are added algebraically to their respective unadjusted values, and the corrected quantities tabulated in the 'balanced' departure and latitude columns. A check is made of the computational process by algebraically summing the balanced departure and latitude columns to verify that each is zero. In these columns, if rounding off causes a small excess or deficiency, revising one of the corrections to make the closure perfect eliminates this." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 247,9)
• Finally, add the Easting (X) coordinate of Station A to the Balanced Departure distance to get the Easting (X) coordinate of Station B. Repeat this process for all the stations. Do the same for the North (Y) values as well.
• Do a final check to see the Station A' Northing and Easting values equal the original Station A values. If rounding off causes a small excess or deficiency, revising one of the corrections to make the closure perfect eliminates this.
Station Preliminary
Azimuths (AZ)
DMS
Correction in Departure =
-(total departure misclosure / traverse perimeter) x length
Correction in Latitude =
-(total latitude misclosure / traverse perimter) x length
Departure =
(Correction in Departure + Unadjusted Departure)
Latitude =
(Correction in Latitude + Unadjusted Latitude)
X ft
easting =
balanced departure + Xprevious
Y ft
northing =
balanced latitude + Yprevious
A 126°55'17"   -(0.026/2466) x 647.25 = (-0.007) -(0.077/2466) x 647.25 = (-0.020)     10,000.00 5000.00
647.25 517.451 -388.815 517.444 -388.835
B 178°18'58"   -(0.026/2466) x 203.03 = (-0.002) -(0.077/2466) x 203.03 = (-0.006)     10,517.44 4611.16
203.03 5.966 -202.942 5.964 -202.948
C 15°31'54"   -(0.026/2466) x 720.35 = (-0.008) -(0.077/2466) x 720.35 = (-0.023)     10,523.41 4408.22
720.35 192.889 694.045 192.881 694.022
D 284°35'20"   -(0.026/2466) x 610.24 = (-0.006) -(0.077/2466) x 610.24 = (-0.019)     10,716.29 5102.24
610.24 -590.565 153.708 -590.571 153.689
E 206°09'42"   -(0.026/2466) x 285.13 = (-0.003) -(0.077/2466) x 285.13 = (-0.009)     10,125.72 5255.93
285.13 -125.715 255.919 -125.718 -255.928
A'   10,000.00 5000.00

## Total Station - Sokkia SET6

#### Sokkia SET6 - Measure Distances

• Background
• Common Problem, using the wrong prism/reflector constant. Typically use reflector constant, K=-30mm. If using SET6 and TSC2 data collector, only enter the K value in the TSC2. If you also enter it in the SET6 then the correction will be cumulative, that is applied twice.
• Step 0: setup instrument over a point and have the rodman over a point, holding a prism
• Step 1: Sokkia SET6 - Check Return Signal Strength

#### Check Return Signal Strength

• Sight the center of the prism being held by the rodman
• On the SET6 keyboard, press SHIFT S/square button to start the signal check, should hear a long continuous beep (if the audio tone is on).
• The display will show the return signal. Good if you have 1 to 4 circles. Bad if you have all dashes or the only the right most circle.
• press S/square button to stop the beep and start a measurement
• press S/square button again to stop the distance measurement

#### Sokkia SET6 - Measure Vertical Angles

• Step 0: setup SET6 parameters for vertical angle display format
• Traditionally use Zenith for the vertical angle display format

#### Sokkia SET6 Total Station and Trimble TSC2 Data Collector

• Communication is one-way from the SET6 to the TSC2. Note, in newer Total Stations, can have two-way communication, that is use the TSC2 to control the Total Station.
• Setup SET6
1. Ensure the SET6 is level/balanced
2. Battery is charged
3. Vertical Indexing - Initialize the vertical angle by rotating the scope 360°
4. Return Signal Checking - Sight on a prism and check the signal by pressing SHIFT "S/square" button, if 2 or 3 dots, then good. Press SHIFT "S/square" button to get out of check signal mode. (see Sokkia SET6 - Check Return Signal Strength)
5. Get the SET6 in Single Measure mode by selecting "S/square" button
6. Should be ready to measure an angle and distance
• Setup TSC2
1. Connect the TSC2 controller holder to the tripod
2. Connect the SET6 to the TSC2 via the RS232 to 9-pin cable
3. Start a new job in TSC2 Survey Controller
• Bill Desjardins recommends using Scale Factor of 1 if doing a plane survey instead of using "No projection No Datum"
4. Configure Sokkia SET6
• Bill Desjardins recommends using Scale Factor of 1 if doing a plane survey instead of using "No projection No Datum"
5. Survey -> SOKKIA-SET6 -> Station Setup
• The SET6 must be on, then TSC2 can start configuring a connection
• Atmospheric Conditions
• Use National Weather Service - Las Vegas McCarran International Airport to determine the current pressure and temperature. Then enter these values into the TSC2 which will automatically computer the PPM value.
• "The SET6 uses a beam of infra-red light to measure the distance. The velocity of this light in the atmosphere varies according to the temperature and pressure. For a variation in temperature of 1°C, the distance is changed by 1 ppm. For a variation in pressure of 3.6mb, the distance is changed by 1 ppm. (A 1 ppm change is 1 mm for every 1 km of distance measured.) Consequently, temperature and atmospheric pressure must be carefully measured to correct the measured distances. (Temperature should be measured to the nearest 1°C and pressure to within 3.8 mb.) The ppm correction does not need to be applied when the calculated ppm value is within ±5ppm and the distances are less than 200 m." (Sokkia SET6 Operator's Manual, Appendix 2, p. 55)
• "The atmospheric correction is necessary for accurate distance measurement, because the velocity of light in air is affected by the temperature and atmospheric pressure. The SET6 is designed so that the correction factor is 0 for a temperature of +15°C (+59°F) and an atmospheric pressure of 1013 mb (29.9 inchHg)." (Sokkia SET6 Operator's Manual, p. 23)
• Enter uncorrected barometric pressure, that is not corrected for sea level
• National Weather Service - Las Vegas McCarran International Airport
• Measure the height of the SET6 instrument (HI) using a tape measure in decimal feet.
• Instrument Point Name
• Key in an existing point name
• Need the X,Y,Z values of the existing Point (Northing, Easting and Elevation)
• Enter the backsight point name, Azimuth and height. If you have a keyed in value, then the TSC2 will automatically calculate the Azimuth of the backsight.
• Select a survey method, such as Angles and distance
• Click Measure button at the bottom right corner of TSC2 Survey Controller screen.
• Survey -> SOKKIA-SET6 -> Measure topo

#### Boundary Surveys

• "In the United States a two-tier land tenure system exists. At the federal level, records of surveys and rights to federal land are maintained by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). At the state and local levels, official records concerning land tenure are held in county courthouses." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 622)
• "Land titles in the United States are now transferred by written documents called deeds (warranty, quitclaim, or agreement), which contain a description of the property. Property descriptions are prepared as the result of a land survey. The various methods of description include (1) metes and bounds, (2) block-and-lot number, (3) coordinate values for each corner, and (4) township, section, and smaller subdivisions of the United States Public Land Survey System (PLSS) commonly referred to as the aliquote part." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 622)
• Boundary Survey Examples by VTN

#### Subdivision Surveys

• "Critical subdivision design and layout considerations include creating good building sites, an efficient street and utility layout, and assured drainage.... A subdivision project involves a survey of the exterior boundaries of the tract to be divided, followed by a topographic survey, design of the subdivision, and layout of the interior of the tract." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 633)

#### Public Land Survey System (PLSS)

• "The Public Land Survey System (PLSS) is a way of subdividing and describing land in the United States. All lands in the public domain are subject to subdivision by this rectangular system of surveys, which is regulated by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM)." (NationalAtlas.gov Article)
• Principal Meridians and Base Lines map
• "Township lines are east-west lines that connect township corners previously established at intervals of 6 mi on the principal meridian, guide meridians, and range lines." (Elementary Surveying p. 655)

#### History of the Public Land Survey System

• President George Washington
• President Thomas Jefferson
• History of PLSS - "Originally proposed by Thomas Jefferson, the PLSS began shortly after the Revolutionary War, when the Federal government became responsible for large areas west of the thirteen original colonies. The government wished both to distribute land to Revolutionary War soldiers in reward for their service, as well as to sell land as a way of raising money for the nation. Before this could happen, the land needed to be surveyed." (NationalAtlas.gov History PLSS)
• President Abraham Lincoln

#### PLSS Initial Point, Principal Meridian and Baseline

• Table of Initial Points with meridian name and latitude/longitude 1973 Manual of Instruction
• BLM Principal Meridians and Base Lines (full size map)
• National Atlas - Public Land Survey System - Shapefile of all townships in USA. Article on the Public Land Survey System
• Meridians and Base Lines (zip of shapefile files .shp) from www.geocommunicator.gov ArcIMS server - MeridiansBaseLines.zip
• http://www.geocommunicator.gov/blmMap/MapLSIS.jsp
• URL: www.geocommunicator.gov ArcIMS Service: BLM_LSIS_with_ref
• WMS Parameters: http://www.geocommunicator.gov/wmsconnector/com.esri.wms.Esrimap?ServiceName=BLM_MAP_PLSS&
• For more information, see Bureau of Land Management - Map & Data Services: NILS GeoCommunicator
• Mark O'Brien, GIS Coordinator with BLM Nevada State Office, voice: 775-861-6440, email: mark_o'brien@blm.gov doesn't know of a GIS layer depicting the meridians and baselines across the country. He asked his boss d50morla@blmgov and bhwilson@blm.gov to see if they know.
• "If you stream in the layer (use the BLM_Feature_PLSS) you will be able to right click on the layer, go to data, and export the data into a shapefile. It will not have metadata with it. You will have to search around the geocommunicator site to find their metadata."
• "As settlers pressed westward, in each area where a substantial amount of surveying was needed, an initial point was established within the region to be surveyed. It was located by astronomical observations. The manual of 1902 was the first to specify an indestructible monument, preferably a copper bolt, firmly set in a rock ledge if possible and witnessed by rock bearings. In all, thirty-seven initial points have been set, five of them in Alaska." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 652)
• "After the principal meridian and the baseline have been run, standard parallels (Stan. Par. or SP), also called correction lines, are run as true parallels of latitude 24 mil apart in the same manner as was the baseline.... Standard parallels are numbered consecutively north and south of the baseline; examples are first standard parallel north and third standard parallel south." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 654)
• Manual of Surveying Instructions 1973 -
• Nevada and parts of California Initial Point
• Arizona Initial Point (Gila and Salt River Meridian)
• Idaho Initial Point - "The Start of All Land Surveys in Idaho"
• Montana Initial Point (Latitude 45°47'13", Longitude 111°39'33")
• "From each initial point, a true north-south line called a principal meridian was run north and/or south to the limits of the limits of the area to be covered." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 652)
• "From the initial point, a baseline was extended east and/or west as a true parallel of latitude to the limits of the area to be covered." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 653)

#### Legal Descriptions

• "The boundaries of metes descriptions are created by starting at a 'point of commencement' that may or may not be on the parcel that is being described, and then proceeding by a single course or courses (bearing and distance) to a 'point of beginning' (POB) or 'true point of beginning' (TPOB), a point on the parcel that is being described. It proceeds in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction by courses, in a systematic manner encompassing a closed figure, always calling for a corner point (monumented or unmonumented) at the termination of each course, and returning to the point of beginning." (Brown's Boundary Control and Legal Principles, 4th Edition by Curtis M. Brown, Walter G. Robillard and Donald A. Wilson, page 99)
• Point of Commencement vs. True Point of Beginning
• According to Tomas Armijo with Clark County Development Services - Civil, Survey & Mapping, the use to true point of beginning is discouraged. Some legal descriptions will call the point of commencement (POC) as the POB and then the POB as the TPOB.
• "when the true point of beginning of the subject property is not yet established, it must depend upon a remote point of beginning which is already recognized. The transition between the two is accomplished through several different combinations of words. The first part (from the recognized point) usually starts with just 'Beginning at' and after going through the necessary courses and distances, arrives at the 'True Point of Beginning,' after which the subject property is described and the closing course must then return 'to the True Point of Beginning.' Some scriveners prefer to start the first part with 'Commencing at' and go to the Point of Beginning' and return to the 'Point of Beginning.' There is no rule concerning this and the combination of words is immaterial so long as the distinction between the two types of points is made clear." (Writing Legal Descriptions by Gurdon H. Wattles, p. 11.10)
• "The basis of the bearings should be indicated. The basis can be a magnetic bearing, a true bearing derived from a Polaris observation or a solar observation, reference to a geodetic triangulation station, a previous bearing from an adjacent tract, from a previous survey, assumed, astronomic, geodetic, or grid. But the basis of the bearings must and should be indicated in the description." (Brown's Boundary Control and Legal Principles, 4th Edition by Curtis M. Brown, Walter G. Robillard and Donald A. Wilson, page 99)
• "Two mathematical elements of a curve are all that are needed, although three are usually quoted. Radius, central angle (delta), and curve length are more often used than are chord, middle ordinate, tangent, degree of curvature, or external distance." (Evidence and Procedures for Boundary Location, 5th Edition by Walter G. Robillard, Donald A. Wilson and Curtis M. Brown, page 447)
• "To define a curve in a description, at least two elements of the curve must be stated, and in addition (1) the relationship of the curve to the previous line, (2) the direction of the curve, and (3) the direction of travel of the curve must also be stated." (Brown's Boundary Control and Legal Principles, 4th Edition by Curtis M. Brown, Walter G. Robillard and Donald A. Wilson, page 110)
• "In description work, at least five elements are necessary to determine a curve:

1 and 2. The elements of dimension (R & L; etc.)
3. The direction of curvature (concave to SE; convex to W - convex rarely used).
4. The direction of extension (travel) along the curve (Ely; Sly).
5. The relation of the curve to the next preceding course (or curve) (tangent, compound, or radial bearing or beginning of curve, etc.).

Optional additions to the five elements may include one or more dimension elements (central angle or angle of arc, tangent, chord bearing and/or length, etc.); relation of the curve to the next succeeding course or curve; any other data for clarity or interpretation. It is evident that the additions must be precisely consistent with the necessary elements given.

In reciting such additions, name them in the order of intended superiority so that any inconsistency may be properly analyzed; for example: if length is recited prior to central angle even though calculated therefrom, it will probably prevail over the angle, while if the angle is first stated, the weight of probability tends toward the angle." (see Land Survey Descriptions by Wm. C. Wattles, 1956 p. 16)
• "a radial bearing to or from the 'center of said curve' is a bearing of the radial line passing through the midpoint of the arc." (see Land Survey Descriptions by Wm. C. Wattles, 1956 p. 16)
• "Although the bearing of a radial line on a map may be shown in either direction (N 10° E, S 10° W), the description should always recite the proper direction conformable with the context; the extension of a radial line is correctly from the center of the circle to the circumference." (see Land Survey Descriptions by Wm. C. Wattles, 1956 p. 18)
• "The bearings of radials (unless otherwise definitely stated) are expressed in a direction from the center of the circle to its circumference. The radial line stops at the circumference of its circle. If you wish to follow a radial line beyond that, you must use the expression, 'along the prolongation of said radial line...'" (Writing Legal Descriptions in Conjunction with Survey Boundary Control by Gurdon H. Wattles, page 4.26)

#### Glossary of Deed Terms

• Concave - the inside of a curve; toward the center of the circle
• "The concavity direction of a curve is that of the direction of the center of the circle of said curve from the mid-point of the arc described; a described segment of a record curve may be concave to the Ease, while the whole of the record curve may be concave to the North. Fig. 5." (see Land Survey Descriptions by Wm. C. Wattles, 1956 p. 17)
• "...direction of the concavity of a curve which is based on the bearing of a line passing through the midpoint of the arc toward the center of that circle. If it is near the bearing between two 'ly directions (e.g. norhterly, northeasterly, etc.) either one can be used or both can be expressed." (Writing Legal Descriptions in Conjunction with Survey Boundary Control by Gurdon H. Wattles, page 4.11)
• Radial or Radial Bearing - a radial line is any straight line extending from the center of a defined circle to the circle's circumference. A radial bearing is the direction of a given radial line. On plats the word radial next to a bearing indicates that that line is radial from the center of the given circle.
• The radial bearing line and distance will give you two circles which can intersect the point. Problem is most legal descriptions, unknown if the surveyor is describing the arc by going from the center of circle to the circle's circumference or vise-versea from the circle's circumference to the center of the circle. Need another piece of information about the arc which is the concave direction. With the concave direction, you can easily identify which of the two circles are being used to define the arc in the legal description.
• Radially or in other words at right angle to. "...distance is measured at right angles, or radially..." (Writing Legal Descriptions in Conjunction with Survey Boundary Control by Gurdon H. Wattles, page 4.12)
• ArcMap COGO Toolbar -> Curve -> Radial direction wants the radial bearings from the curve/circumference of the circle to center of the circle. So you might need to enter the opposite bearing direction. For example, my legal description gives a bearing of N45-15-7E from the center of the circle/curve to the circumference of the curve. When I enter this curve into ArcMap, I want to use bearing S45-15-7W.
• Thence - from that place; the following course is continuous from the one before it.
• Brown's Boundary Control and Legal Principles, 4th Edition by Curtis M. Brown, Walter G. Robillard and Donald A. Wilson, - Glossary of Deed Terms pages 374-400)

#### Definition of Curves

• CHORD - also known as the Long Chord, LC. "is that segment of a straight line which is intersected by two points on a curve, or, in other words, the straight line distance between the two ends of a segment of arc." (Writing Legal Descriptions in Conjunction with Survey Boundary Control by Gurdon H. Wattles, page 4.21)

#### Aliquot Descriptions

• "...an aliquot description is a perfect description. According to federal law the least aliquot description available (or legal) is a quarter-quarter or one-sixteeth or 40 acres, according to the GLO survey. Yet many individuals may describe a section as small as a 1/64 or 1/256 or even smaller. It must be remembered that these boundaries are invisible and set by law as being a direct proportion, without a remainder." (see Brown's Boundary Control and Legal Principles, 4th Edition by Curtis M. Brown, Walter G. Robillard and Donald A. Wilson, page 102)

#### Legal Description and Figure

• "Thence from a tangent line bearing N 38° 13' E, northeasterly 60.00 feet along a curve concave to the southeast having a radius of 100.00 feet to the beginning of a reverse curve concave to the northwest having a radius of 60.00 feet; thence northeasterly 40.00 feet along said curve." (Writing Legal Descriptions in Conjunction with Survey Boundary Control by Gurdon H. Wattles, p. 4.25)

WritingLegalDesc-Fig32a.dwg
• "If the line previous to the curve had already been cited, it would be unnecessary to repeat the bearing because it would be properly assumed that the curve was tangent unless otherwise stated."

"Thence from a tangent line bearing N 29° 40' E, easterly 60.00 feet along a curve concave to the south having a radius of 60.00 feet to the cusp of a curve concave to the southeast having a radius of 50.00 feet, to which point of cusp a radial of the last mentioned curve bears N 23° 15' W; thence southwesterly 40.00 feet along said curve." (Writing Legal Descriptions in Conjunction with Survey Boundary Control by Gurdon H. Wattles, p. 4.25)

WritingLegalDesc-Fig32b.dwg

#### Writing Legal Descriptions

• "Your slogan should be, 'Concise Clarity Without Ambiguity.' Do not use time or space for superfluous words, but, on the other hand, do not omit words or phrases that are necessary. Ask yourself the question 'Will the omission of these words change the meaning?' or 'Will the use of these additional words add to or subtract from the actual meaning of the whole phrase?'" (Writing Legal Descriptions in Conjunction with Survey Boundary Control by Gurdon H. Wattles, p. 11.2-3)
• Description of land by metes and bounds in a deed should always contain the following information in addition to the recital:
1. Point of commencement (POC). This is an established reference point such as a corner of the PLSS or National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) monument to which the property description is tied or referenced. It serves as the starting point for the description.
2. Point of beginning (POB)
3. Definite Corners - provide a description of the point, for example a 1 inch iron pipe
• Such corners are clearly defined points with coordinates if possible.
• "The importance of permanent monuments to mark property is evident. In fact, some states require pipes, iron pins, and/or concrete markers set deep enough to reach below the frost line at all property corners before surveys will be accepted for recording. Actually, almost any suitable marker could be called for as a monument. A map attached to the description will contain a legend, which identifies all monuments." (Elementary Surveying, 13th Ediion by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 636)
4. Lengths and directions of the property sides
5. Names of adjoining property owners
6. Areas
• (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 625 or Elementary Surveying, 13th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 637)

#### Example Legal Description

• Reference the initial point meridian
• "Being a portion of section 16, Township 22 South, Range 60 East, M.D.M, Clark County, Nevada, more particularly described as follows:"
• Point of Commencement
• "Starting at the point of commencement, which is a 1 inch iron pipe at the southwest corner said section, township and range;"
• Point of Beginning
• "thence north 87°52'37" East, along the south line of said section, a distance of 387.62 feet to a 1 inch iron pipe at the point of beginning of this description;"
• Lengths and directions of the property sides
• "Thence continuing north 84°52'4" east, a distance of 460.45 feet to an 1 inch iron pipe;
• "thence north 5°44'38" west, a distance of 213.77 feet to an 1 inch iron pipe;
• which is the beginning of a curve, concave southwesterly having a radius of 150.00 feet; thence northwesterly, 211.30 feet along said curve through a central angle of 80.7123° to an 1 inch iron pipe;
• thence north 86° 27' 23" west, a distance of 302.16' to an 1 inch iron pipe;
• thence south 0° 36' 43" east, a distance of 407.29 feet to an 1 inch iron pipe which is the point of beginning."
• Areas
• said parcel containing 3.67 acres, more or less
• side note, remember 1 acre = 43,560 ft2
• Boundary Survey Examples by Vern Little with VTN

#### Experts at Writing Legal Descriptions

• Kay Adams, retired, former County Surveyor for Clark County. Contact Calvin Black (voice: 804-2020, email: cblack@gcwallace.com)

## Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

#### GNSS/GPS Overview

• "It was developed by the Department of Defense for military use; however, it has been adapted for a wide range of civilian navigational needs." (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanazfama and Kissam, ISBN-13 978-0-13-500037-3, p. 59)
• "Radio signals transmitted by orbiting earth satellites can be used to determine the horizontal coordinates, as well as the elevation, of any point on the earth's surface. A small portable antenna receiver and power source are set up over the survey station to track the radio signals." (Surveying Fundamentals and Practices, 6th Edition by Nathanson, Lanazfama and Kissam, ISBN-13 978-0-13-500037-3, p. 168-9)
• "Global geodetic applications require three different surfaces to be clearly defined. The first of these is the Earth’s topographic surface. This surface includes the familiar landmass topography as well as the ocean bottom topography. In addition to this highly irregular topographic surface, a definition is needed for a geometric or mathematical reference surface, the ellipsoid, and an equipotential surface called the geoid." (Department of Defense World Geodetic System 1984, p. 3-1)

#### Earth’s topographic surface - Orthometric Height (NAVD 88)

• The height between the geoid and a point on the Earth's topographic surface measured along the the plumb line (see Introduction to Geodetic Vertical Datums by Dave Doyle)
• H = orthometric height (NAVD88)
• This is the heights/elevations in which water runs downhill,
• don't get this value from GPS observations, get little h which is the Ellipsoidal Height

#### Ellipsoid

• Elevation from the GPS unit
• "A spheroidal (ellipsoidal) vertical coordinate system (VCS) defines heights that are referenced to a spheroid of a geographic coordinate system. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit natively reports heights relative to the World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84) ellipsoid. An onboard geoid model in the GPS unit converts the ellipsoidal heights to gravity-related elevations. A spheroidal height is a geometry quantity and does not have a physical sense, as a geographic coordinate system's spheroid may fall above above or below the actual earth surface. Spheroidal heights for an area may not reflect movement due to gravity, that is, the flow of water. Water can run uphill when working with spheroidal heights." (ESRI ArcGIS Vertical Datums)
• mathematical model of the size and shape of the earth
• Ellipsoid GRS80
• Principal Reference Ellipsoids in the U.S.A.
• "Because the Earth is slightly flattened at the poles, a sphere won't work. A flattened sphere, which is called an ellipsoid, is used to represent the geometric model of the Earth." (Vertical Datums, Elevations and Heights)
• "...the earth's surface is approximated in size and shape by the geometric surface that is formed by rotating an ellipse about its smaller axis (Figure 1). The generated surface is termed an "ellipsoid of revolution" or simply ellipsoid. The ellipsoid's geometric center should be located at the origin of the 3D cartesian system, and its axis of radial symmetry (semi-minor axis) should coincide with the cartesian z-axis of the selected terrestrial reference frame. The size and shape of the rotated ellipse may be completely specified using two parameters: the length of its semi-major axis, usually denoted a, which approximates the distance from the geocenter to a point on the equator (approximately 6,378 km); and the length of the semi-minor axis, denoted b, which approximates the distance from the geocenter to the North Pole. The value of b is about 0.3% shorter than a. The fact that a is longer than b is a consequence of the force imparted by Earth's rotation causing our home planet to bulge outward around its equator. Often, instead of b, the ellipsoid's flattening, f = (a - b)/a, is used." Reference Systems: Modern Terrestrial Reference Systems Part 1, Professional Surveyor Magazine - December 1999. Dr Richard A. Snay and Tom Soler, Dr.
• Ellipsoid Model
• h = Ellipsoidal Height (NAD 83)
• Parameters for commonly used Ellipsoids
• Direct and Inverse Solutions of Geodesics on the Ellipsoid with Application of Nested Equations by T. Vincenty. Survey Review XXII, 176, April 1975 (SurveyReviewApril1975-DistanceOnEllipsoid.pdf)

### Geoid

• Level Surface. "A curved surface that at every point is perpendicular to the local plumb line (the direction in which gravity acts). Level surfaces are approximately spheroidal in shape. A body of still water is the closest example of a level surface. Within local areas, level surfaces at different heights are considered to be concentric. Level surfaces are also known as equipotential surfaces since, for a particular surface, the potential of gravity is equal at every point on the surface.
Geoid. A particular level surface that serves as a datum for elevations and astronomical observations." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Ed, Ghilani and Wolf, p. 73-4)
• "...the geoid is an equipotential gravitational surface located approximately at mean sea level, which is everywhere perpendicular to the direction of gravity. Because of variations in the Earth's mass distribution and the rotation of the Earth, the geoid has an irregular shape." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Ed, Ghilani and Wolf, p. 522)
• "The geoid is defined as the surface of the earth's gravity field, which is approximately the same as mean sea level. It is perpendicular to the direction of gravity pull. Since the mass of the earth is not uniform at all points, and the direction of gravity changes, the shape of the geoid is irregular." (ESRI ArcGIS Desktop 10 - The geoid, ellipsoid, spheroid and datum, and how they are related)
• Geoid09 is based on the newer NAD83 datum (lat, long, ellipsoid height) which is based on the GRS80 ellipsoid.
• Geoid09 surface is just the height difference between the Geoid and the ellipsoid
• National Geodetic Survey (NGS) GEOID09 homepage
• The Geoid09 and NAD83 ellipsoidal height are tied together, if you try to use the USGG2009 geoid model, will be more than a meter off.
• GEOID09 geoid height calculator
• GEOID09 Data for Conterminous United States
• ESRI TIFF image of the GEOID09 surface for Conterminous United States
• Procedure to create an ESRI GRID from the GEOID09 data
• File Structure, first one line header info
• SLAT: southernmost latitude in whole degrees minus sign (-) for South latitudes
• WLON: westernmost longitude in whole degrees EAST
• Note, ESRI ArcGIS projections like longitude between +-180°, so for North America, calculate the west longitude by subtracting 360°
• Example, if longitude is in whole degrees EAST = 230°, then the west longitude is 230° - 360° = -130°
• DLAT: distance interval in latitude in whole degrees (point spacing in E-W direction)
• DLON: distance interval in longitude in whole degrees (point spacing in N-S direction)
• NLAT: number of rows (starts with SLAT and moves northward DLAT to next row)
• NLON: number of columns (starts with WLON and moves eastward DLON to next column)
• IKIND: always equal to one (indicates data are real*4)
• The GRID is written bottom to top which is flipped from what ESRI GRID wants
• After this one line header, the data follow. The first row represents the southernmost row of data with the first data point being in the SW corner. The row is NLON values wide spaced at DLAT intervals, and then increments to the next row which is DLAT to the north. This continues until the last row where the last value represents the NE corner. The easternmost longitude is = WLON + (NLON - 1) * DLON, while the northernmost latitude is = SLAT + (NLAT - 1) * DLAT.
3. Unzip and Edit the header file of the GEOID09 data file
• Use a text editor like UltraEdit
• Replace the first one line header with the ESRI GRID format
• ESRI ASCII raster format
• ESRI GRID ASCII Format (.txt or .asc) for CONUS Grid #5
• ESRI GRID ASCII Format (.txt or .asc) for all CONUS
4. Import ASCII file to Raster using ESRI ArcGIS - ArcToolbox
• Open ESRI ArcMap application
• Open the ArcToolbox
• Search for the ASCII to Raster tool or navigate to Conversion Tools -> To Raster -> ASCII to Raster
• Use an Output data type of Float. Note, unknown how to change the precision and scale of the cell values representing the Geoid Height in meters
• ArcGIS Help - An overview of the To Raster toolset
• ArcGIS Help - ASCII to Raster (Conversion)
5. Flip the Grid
• ESRI Help - Flip
• Remember, ESRI GRID wants the ASCII data in a top to bottom format so we need to flip the ESRI GRID
• Search for FLIP in ArcToolbox or navigate to Data Management Tools -> Projections and Transformations -> Raster -> Flip
• ArcGIS Help - Flip (Data Management)
6. Assign the WGS 84 Lat/Long Geographic Coordinate system to the ESRI GRID
• Search for Define Projection in ArcToolbox or navigate to Data Management Tools -> Projections and Transformations -> Raster -> Define Projection
• Unknown what to assign the vertical projection
• ArcGIS Help - Define Projection (Data Management)
7. Export to GeoTIFF
• Search for Raster To Other Format (multiple) in ArcToolbox or navigate to Conversion Tools -> To Raster -> Raster to Other Format (multiple)
• This creates four files (.tif, .tif.xml, .aux, and .rrd)
• ArcGIS Help - Raster to Other Format (Conversion)
• I'm having problems with Google Earth referencing the GeoTIFF file correctly. To manually place, use the following for Geoid09 CONUS
• West = -130°
• East = -59°59'
• North = 58°1'
• South = 24°
• Output in Google Earth should look similar to this
• Google Earth User Guide - Using Image Overlays and 3D Models
• What is the header format for the ASCII file?
• "The GEOID09 models are heights above the NAD 83 ellipsoid." (see How Prgram INTG Works in USGG2009 ReadmeWhat does this mean? Since all the values are negative does this imply the GEOID09 is below the ellipsoid? What does "NAD 83 ellipsoid" mean?
• It appears the cell size is 1 minute, right?
• What is the datum, WGS 84?
• What is USGG2009 (gravity field model, developer first, regional, ITF00, measure only gravity doesn't include GPS or level loops, it is a geoid model)? Is this another name for GEOID09 (not global, uses GPS and orthmetric control points)? NAVD88 is not a geopotential surface
• What is the difference between GEOID09 and Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008) GIS Data (uses GRACE base model for USGG2009)
• EGM2008 support: wgs84@nga.mil and 314-676-9127
• GEOID09 support: 301-713-3242
• Dr. Daniel Roman, National Geodetic Survey, NOAA, N/NGS6 301-713-3202x161 Internet: dan.roman@noaa.gov
• Dr. Yan Ming Wang, National Geodetic Survey, NOAA, N/NGS6 301-713-3202x127 Internet: yan.wang@noaa.gov
• "It turns out that mean/average sea level (MSL) is a close approximation to another surface, defined by gravity, called the geoid, which in the true zero surface for measuring elevations. Because we cannot directly see the geoid surface, we cannot actually measure the heights above or below the geoid surface. We must infer where this surface is by making gravity measurements and by modeling it mathematically. For practical purposes, we assume that at the coastline the geoid and the MSL surfaces are essentially the same. Nevertheless, as we move inland we measure heights relative to the zero height at the coast, which in effect means relative to MSL." (Vertical Datums, Elevations and Heights)
• The Geoid is below the Ellipsoid in all 48 states. In Alaska and Hawaii, the Geoid is above the Ellipsoid. The distance between the Ellipsoid and the Geoid is call the Geoid Height and is always negative for the 48 states.
• N = Geoid Height (GEOID09) and is the greatest limiting factor in determining the orthometric height, H = h - N
• the Geoid is a model surface and the geoid height, N is accurate to 4 cm at the 95% confidence level for the 48 states.
• Equipotential surface in which gravity is normal (intersects at 90°) and most closely approximates mean sea level on a global basis.
• "The equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field which best fits, in the least squares sense, mean sea level." (Definition from the Geodetic Glossary, Sept 1986) Can't see the surface or measure it directly. Modeled from gravity data. The Geoid most closely approximatates mean sea level on a global basis.
• "GEOID03 (United States) is a refinement of GEOID99, GEOID96, GEOID93 and GEOID90. GEOID03 is a geoid-elevation estimation model of the CONUS, referenced to the GRS80 ellipsoid. Thus, it enables mainland surveyors to convert ellipsoidal heights (NAD 83/GRS80) reliably to the more useful orthometric heights (NAVD88) at the centimeter level. GEOID03 was created from 14,185 points, including 579 in Canada and used updated GPSBMs that were not available for the previous geoid model (GEOID99). GEOID03 files are among the many services to be found at the NGS's Geodetic tool kit website at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/TOOLS/" (Surveying with Construction Applications, 7th Edition by Barry F. Kavanagh, p. 235)
• Geoid models have been incorporated directly into GPS receivers
• NGA EGM96 WGS 84 Geoid Calculator contact Kurt Schulz (voice: 314-676-0793, email: kurt.j.schulz@nga.mil or schulzk@nga.mil)
• GPS on Bench Marks (GPSBM) used to make GEOID09 Excel Spreadsheet of points uses Ellipsoidal Reference Frame NAD83 (CORS96) 2002.0 for CONUS and vertical datum NAVD88
• "The GEOID03 model was developed to support direct conversion between NAD 83 GPS ellipsoidal heights and NAVD 88 orthometric heights." (GEOID03 Readme)
• "The GEOID03 models are heights above the NAD 83 ellipsoid." (GEOID03 Readme)
• "Since the sea surface conforms to the earth's gravitational field, MSL also has slight hills and valleys that are similar to the land surface but much smoother. However, zero elevation as defined by Spain is not the same zero elevation defined by Canada, which is why locally defined vertical datums differ from each other." ( Mean Sea Level, GPS, and the Geoid by Witold Fraczek)
• Orthometric Height, H is the distance from the Geoid surface to the ground. This is elevation we are trying to determine. "Geoid heights can be used to convert between orthometric heights (approximately mean sea level) and ellipsoid heights" (see NGA WGS 84 Geoid Calculator Read Me)
• Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008) GIS Data
• 3D Geospatial Data by Eric Gakstatter
• NGS Contacts
• Dru Smith, (301) 713-3222 x144, Dru.Smith@noaa.gov
• Kendall Fancher, (540) 373-1243, Kendall.Fancher@noaa.gov (think he is the GIS Coordinator for NGS)
• Eric Linzey, (301) 713-3198 x120, Eric.Linzey@noaa.gov (think he is a GIS cartographer with NGS, very helpful)
• Brian Shaw, Brian.Shaw@noaa.gov
• How Accurately Can We Determine Orthometric Height Differences from GPS and Geoid Data? Journal of Surveying Engineering 129 (No. 1)
• On Geoid Models by James P. Reilly, Ph.D. (jpreilly@nmsu.edu or jpreilly@zianet.com), Point of Beginning 29 (No. 12):50. Oct 31, 2003
• ESRI ArcGIS Geoid help

## Datums

• 1-D Vertical/Geopotential (Orthometric Height) - example NGVD 29, NAVD 88, Local Tidal)
• 2-D Horizontal (Latitude and Longitude) - example NAD 27, NAD 83 (1986)
• 3-D Geometric (Latitude, Longitude and Ellipsoid Height) - example NAD 83 (1993) and NAD 83 (2007)
• 4-D Geometric (Latitude, Longitude, Ellipsoid Height and Velocities) - example coordinates change with time such as ITRF00, ITRF008
• References

#### North American Vertical Datum

• NAVD88 is the predicted or realized surface of the geoid
• 2018 will re-define the NAD83 and NAVD88 datums to an absolute gravimetric geoid model along with Canada (see NGS 10 year plan). Thus will move away from passive benchmarks to a new vertical datum.
• Introduction to Geodetic Vertical Datums. The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) and the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD29) and their relation to tidal datums. This talk will also cover topics such as the National Spatial Reference System, types of heights, the Geoid model, gravity data and CORS and OPUS. Instructor: Dave Doyle (NGS Chief Geodetic Surveyor, 301-713-3178,dave.doyle@noaa.gov) Powerpoint Presentation or download from UNLV
• Guidelines for Establishing GPS-Derived Elliposid Height by David B. Zilkoski. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NGS-58.
• Point of Beginning 26, The GPS Observer: NAVD 88 GPS-Derived Orthometric Heights by David B. Zilkoski
• Father Point (Pointe-Au-Pere) Benchmark is maintained by the Canadian Hydrographic Service
Department of Fisheries and Oceans
615 Booth St.
OTTAWA, Ontario K1A 0E6
teleph: +1 (613) 995-4413
telefax: +1 (613) 996-9053
Benchmarks for Pointe-au-Pere (#2980) and it appears this station is for horizontal controle, not vertical which makes me feel there might be another benchmark called Father Point
Dr. Mike Craymer (voice: 613-947-1829, email: craymer@nrcan.gc.ca)
• "The tide gauge in Pointe-au-Pere (Father Point) was in operation from 1897 to 1983 before being transferred to Rimouski. The gauage in Rimouski is active since 1984." (see Canadian Spatial Reference System - Height Reference System Modernization)
• "the geoid is a level surface; it does not coincide with Mean Sea Level. However, the geoid-datum will be near the Mean Sea Level on the east coast because the geoid will be selected such as it represents MSL at the tide gauge in Rimouski. This location is one of the constraints for CGVD28 and the only constraint for NAVD88 (US vertical datum)." (Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) - Canadian Spatial Reference System - Height Reference System Modernization FAQ - Does the geoid-based datum represent mean sea level better than the levelling-based datum CGVD28?)
• Canada's new vertical datum "...is defined by the equipotential surface that coincides with mean water level at the tide gauge in Rimouski. The mean water level in Rimouski is defined such as the geoid heights (N) at benchmarks in the Rimouski/Pointe-au-Pere area are equal to the difference between NAVD88 orthometric heights and ellipsoidal heights: NNAD83(CSRS) = hNAD83(CSRS) - HNAVD88 in the Rimouski/Pointe-au-Pere sector. Thus, the new vertical datum for Canada will have basically the same reference system as NAVD88." (Canadian Spatial Reference System - Height Reference System Modernization FAQ - Why a new name for the vertical datum?)

#### Selective Availability (SA)

• "Selective Availability (SA) was an intentional degradation of public GPS signals implemented for national security reasons. At the direction of the President, SA was discontinued in May 2000 to make GPS more responsive to civil and commerical users world wide. The U.S. Government has no intent to use SA again." ( National Executive Committee - Selective Availability)

#### NGS Data Sheet

• NGS Data Sheets
• Permanent IDentifier (PID) = station name for the control point which consists of two upper case letters followed by four digits, for example AB1098 (see What is a PID???)
• PID = GR1938 and Designation/Name = HAZE (NGS Datasheet is http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/ds_mark.prl?PidBox=GR1938
copy of the NGS Datasheet (NGS-Datasheet-PID-GR1938.pdf)
• "The NGS makes complete descriptions of all its actual NGS horizontal control stations available to surveyors. As an example, a partial listing from an acutal NGS horizontal control station description is given in Figure 19.9 [PID=LZ1878 and Designation/Name=Hayfield NE 1974]. These descriptions give each station's general placement in relation to nearby towns, instructions on how to reach the station following named or numbered roads in the area, and the monument's precise location by means of distances and directions to several nearby objects. The station's specific description, such as, 'a triangulation disk set in drill hole in rock outcrop,' is given, along with a record of recovery history. Data supplied with horizontal control-point descriptions include the datum(s) used and the station's geodetic latitude and longitude. Also given are the state plane coordinates, convergence angle and scale factor, UTM coordinates, and approximate elevation and geoidal height (in meters)." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 543-4)
• PID=AC3363 and Designation/Name = 872 3747 F TIDAL
• NGS ShapeFiles Retrieval Page
• Nevada Survey Control Points shapefile NV.ZIP
• LAST_COND = Last recovered condition of the mark.
• blank/no value
• DESTROYED
• FIRST OBSERVED
• GOOD
• MONUMENTED
• POOR
• SEE DESCRIPTION
• Metadata - Horizontal and Vertical Geodetic Control Data for the United States
• NOAA Tides & Currents - Bench Mark Data Sheets

#### Geometry of Observed Satellites

• "As noted previously, by employing least squares in a GPS solution, the effect of satellite geometry can be determined. In fact, before conducting a GPS survey, the number and positions of visible satellites at a particular time and location can be evaluated in a preliminary least-squares solution to determine their estimated effect upon the resulting accuracy of the solution. This analysis produces so-called Dilution of Precision (DOP) factors.... Obviously, the lower the value for a DOP factor, the better the expected precision in computed positions of ground stations. If the preliminary least-squares analysis gives a higher DOP number than can be tolerated, the observations should be delayed until a more favorable satellite constellation is available." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 346)
• "The DOP factors that are of most concern to surveyors are PDOP (dilution of precision in position), HDOP (dilution of precision in horizontal position), and VDOP (dilution of precision in height). For the best possible constellation of satelites, the average value for HDOP is under 2 and under 5 for PDOP. Other DOP factors such as GDOP (dilution of precision in geometry) and TDOP (dilution of precision in time) can also be evaluated, but are generally of less significance in surveying." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 346)
• PDOP = Positional Dilution of Precision
• Acceptable value 6 or less (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 347)
• HDOP = Horizontal Dilution of Precision
• Acceptable value 3 or less (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 347)
• VDOP = Vertical Dilution of Precision
• Acceptable value 5 or less (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 347)

## Trimble TSC2

#### Using TSC2 with Sokkia SET6 Total Station

• Step 0: Configure Surveying Style. This only needs to be done one time on the TSC2
• Using the TSC2 Survey Controller software, click Configuration -> Survey styles
• click New
• Name the style "SOKKIA-SET6"
• Have the following options
• Instrument
• Manufacture: Sokkia
• Model: SET (basic)
• Baud rate: 1200
• Parity: none
• HA VA status rate: Never
• Measure Distance on face 2: checked
• Edit Instrument Precisions: No
• Topo point
• Stakeout
• Duplicate point tolerance
• Laser Rangefinder
• Step 1: create a new job
• Step 2: select surveying style
• click Survey icon on the main survey controller homepage.
• then click the survey style: "SOKKIA-SET6"
• Station Setup
• this will start the connection between the TSC2 and the SET6 total station. For some reason it just says "connecting to total station"
• Station Setup Plus
• Resection
• Refine

#### How to load the latest Geoid Model into the Trimble TSC2

• Step 1: visit Trimble Geomatics Office Support website to find the latest Geoid for conterminous United States (CONUS)
• download this Trimble format .ggf file for the Geoid 09 Combined CONUS
• note — The files used by the Geoid Grid model are a Trimble proprietary format. To convert third-party grid files (such as those distributed by DMA) to the Trimble grid file format, you need a separate utility program called mkgrid.exe. Contact your Trimble dealer for details. (Trimble Business Center - Coordinate System Manager Help file)
• Trimble Grid Factory utility to create subgrids from existing grids or to combine multiple existing grids into a single grid. v1.41-GridFactory.exe
• Step 2: copy .ggf onto TSC2

#### How to load the latest Geoid Model into Trimble Business Center

• Step 0: visit Trimble Geomatics Office Support website to find the latest Geoid for conterminous United States (CONUS). Note Geoid09 file is 33 MB (G09US.ggf)
• Step 1: start Trimble Business Center and open Coordinate System Manager
• Tools -> Coordinate System Manager
• Step 2: identify the GeoData directory
• Identify the data directory using View -> Options on the Coordinate System Manager dialog box
• default directory is C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Trimble\GeoData\
• Ken_Joyce@trimble.com recommends using C:\Program Files\Common Files\Trimble\GeoData
• using Windows Explorer, copy G09US.ggf into C:\Program Files\Common Files\Trimble\GeoData or C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Trimble\GeoData\
• Step 4: Add the Geoid model
• Open the Coordinate System Manager dialog box
• click the Geoid Models tab
• right click on blank area and select Add New Model...
• give a name to the user-defined Geoid Grid, that is GEOID09 (Conus)
• from the File name drop down, select G09US.ggf
• Alternatively - click Edit -> Add Geoid Model... from the menu toolbar
• Step 5: should see the GEOID09 (Conus) in the Coordinate System Manager window
• Step 6: copy survey .job file from TSC2 into TBC project file
• Getting an error message, even though the Geoid09 model is installed, TBC cannot find it and I don't see it in the Select Geoid Model drop down list.
• I tried installing the Geoid in both directories, still cannot see it.
• Option 1: try using the Geoid uploaded from TBC into TSC2 and see if that works on a newly created .job file. Problem might be how the Geoid was loaded into the TSC2.

## Projections

#### Projections used in State Plane Coordinate Systems

• "To convert geodetic positions of a portion of the Earth's surface to plane rectangular coordinates, points are projected mathematically from the ellipsoid to some imaginary developable surface -a surface that can conceptually be developed or 'unrolled and laid out flat' without distortion of shape or size. A rectangular grid can be superimposed on the developed plane surface and the positions of points in the plane specified with respect to X and Y grid axes. A plane grid developed using this mathematical process is called a map projection.... Today, two of the most commonly used mapping projections are the Lambert conformal conic and the Transverse Mercator projections." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 580)

#### State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS)

• "...points couldn't be projected from the ellipsoid to developable surfaces without introducing distortions in the lengths of lines or the shapes of areas. However, these distortions are held to a minimum by selected placement of the cone or cylinder secant to the ellipsoid, by choosing a conformal projection (one that preserves true angular relationships around points in a small region), and also by limiting the zone size or extent of coverage on the Earth's surface for any particular map projection. If the width of zones is held to a maximum of 158 mi (254 km), and if two-thirds of this zone width is between the secant lines, distortions (differences in line lengths on the two surfaces) are kept to 1 part in 10,000 or less. The NGS intended this accuracy in its development of the state plane coordinate systems." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 581-2)
• Clark County uses StatePlane Coordinate- Nevada East Zone (NV-E) along with other local agencies (e.g. City of Las Vegas, Henderson, North Las Vegas, and so on)
• Map of all Stateplane coordinate zones is included with ArcMap, depending upon where you installed the program, e.g. C:\Program Files\ArcGIS\Reference Systems\usstpln83.shp (download zip of shapefiles from UNLV, usstpln83.zip - Geographic Coordinate System - GCS_WGS_1984)
• State Plane Coordinate System of 1983 NOAA Manual NOS NGS 5 by James E. Stem
• "A new figure of the Earth, the Geodetic Reference System of 1980 (GRS 80), which approximates the Earth's true size and shape, supplied a better fit than the Clarke 1866 spheroid, the reference surface used with NAD 27." (ibid p. 2)
• "The ellipsoid that forms the basis of NAD 83, and consequently the SPCS 83, is identified as the Geodetic Reference System of 1980 (GRS 80). GRS 80 provides an excellent global approximation of the Earth's surface. The Clarke spheroid of 1866, as used for NAD 27 approximated only the conterminous United States. Because the geoid separation at point MEADES RANCH was assumed equal to zero, a translation exists between ellipsoids. The ellipsoid change is the major contributor of the coordinate shift from NAD 27 to NAD 83." (ibid p. 12)
• NAD 27 - U.S. coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS) Special Publication 235 - The State Coordinate Systems
• Fundamentals of the State Plane Coordinate Systems
• U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Manual of Traverse Computation on the Transverse Mercator Grid by Oscar S. Adams, Senior Mathematician and Charles N. Claire, Associate Mathematician. GPO, Washington, DC, 1935. 199 pages. Special Publication No. 195.
• Publication of North American Datum of 1983 State Plane Coordinates in Feet in Nevada
• State Plane Coordinates Presentation by Dr. Ghilani
• National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Geodesy and Geophysics
• Fundamentals of the State Plane Coordinate Systems by Joseph F. Dracup, Sept 1974. National Geodetic Survey
• Map Projections: A Working Manual by John P. Snyder. USGS Professional Paper 1395. Washington, D.C.: USGS, 1993.
• GRS 80
• Equatorial Radius/Semiaxis, a = 6,378,137 meters
• Polar Radius/Semiaxis, b = 6,356,752.3 meters
• Flattening, f = 1/298.257
• "in computations if the ellipsoid is assumed a sphere, its radius is usually taken such that its volume is the same as the reference ellipsoid. It is computed from (a2b)1/3. For the GRS80 ellipsoid, its rounded value is 6,371,000 meters." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Ed, Ghilani and Wolf, p. 523)
• WGS 84
• Equatorial Radius, a = 6,378,135 meters
• Polar Radius, b = 6,356,750.5 meters
• Flattening, f = 1/298.26
• Nevada East Zone Map Projectsion: A Working Manual, p. 53 and 374
• Transverse Mercator Projection
• Central meridian = 115°35' West
• ESRI uses -115.583333333333300000 decimal degrees = -115°35'
• Scale reduction = 1:10,000
• ESRI uses a scale factor of 0.999900000000000010
• "Lines of contact. Any single meridian for the tangent project. For the secant projection, two almost parallel lines equidistant from the central meridian...Accurate scale along the central meridian if the scale factor is 1.0. If it is less than 1.0, there are two straight lines with accurate scale equidistant from and on each side of the central meridian." (ESRI ArcGIS Transerve Mercator)
• Origin (latitude) = 34°45' North
• ESRI uses 34.7500 decimal degrees = 34°45'
• Coordinates of Origin (meters): False Easting x=200,000 and False Northing y=8,000,000
• "State plane coordinate systems are generally designed to have a scale error maximum of about 1 unit in 10,000. Suppose you calculated the Cartesian distance (using the Pythagorean theorem) between two points represented in a state plane coordinate system to be exactly 10,000 meters. Then, with a perfect tape measure, pulled tightly across an idealized planet, you would be assured that the measured result would differ by no more than 1 meter from the calculated one. The possible error with the UTM coordinate system may be larger: 1 in 2500." (Introducing Geographic Information Systems with ArcGIS, 2nd Edition by Michael Kennedy, p. 18)
• Datum: NAD 1983 (Conus) (Mol) is used on the Trimble TSC2
• GPS Course Lesson 6: Two-Coordinate Systems and Heights by Jan Van Sickle, Senior Lecturer
• "...the projection of points from the Earth's surface onto a reference ellipsoid and finally onto flat maps..." (ibid)
• Stateplane Coordinates in USA use Secant Projections to minimize distortion by providing 2 lines of intersection instead of one line with the Tangent case. Secant Projection intersect the ellipsoid at two areas and these two lines are of exact scale (also known as standard lines) to the ellipsoid.
• Ellipsoidal lengths = geodetic distances
• Lengths on the map projection surface = grid distances
• Grid North is parallel to the Central Meridian. Convergence is the angle between Grid North and Geodetic North
• False Easting and Northing
• False easting is a linear value applied to the origin of the x coordinates.
• False northing is a linear value applied to the origin of the y coordinates.
• False easting and northing values are usually applied to ensure that all x and y values are positive.
• False easting and false northing adjustments by Margaret M. Maher
• "False easting and false northing values are sometimes inserted into a projection file in order to make all the x- and y-coordinate values across the area of the data positive numbers. False easting and false northing values can also be used to adjust the position of the data in either the east-west or north-south direction in order to align the data.
Making the false easting value in the projection file larger will adjust the position of the data to the west, moving the data to the left in the ArcMap display. Making the false easting value in the project file smaller will adjust the position of the data east, to the right in the ArcMap display.
Adjustments to the false northing value in the projection file will move the data display north or south, though they are not as intuitive as the false easting adjustments. Making the false northing value in the projection file larger will move the data display south in the ArcMap window. Making the false northing value smaller will move the data display north in the ArcMap window.
Keep these adjustments in mind while creating the custom projection file to align your data in ArcMap." (Lining Up Data in ArcGIS by Margaret M. Maher, p. 55, ISBN 978-1-58948-249-4)
• "A constant E0 is adopted to offset the N grid axis from the central meridian and make E coordinates of all points positive. Similarly, a constant Nb can be adopted to offset the E grid axis from the southern edge of the projection." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 587)
• You can also use the false easting and northing parameters to reduce the range of the x or y coordinate values. For example, if you know all y values are greater than 5,000,000 meters, you could apply a false northing of -5,000,000.
• ESRI ArcGIS Desktop 10 - Projection parameters
• According to David Doyle with NGS, metadata is hard to obtain on current surveying work but was extremely difficult in the 1980s. So, the State of Nevada wanted to ensure when surveyors where working with the two different Datums (NAD27 and NAD83) that a surveyor could easily tell from the coordinate values, which Datum is being used. So the NAD83 coordinates have a 8,000,000 meters added to the Northing (Y) coordinate values.
• NAD27 - Nevada East Zone uses a False Northing of 0 ft
• NAD83 - Nevada East Zone uses a False Northing of 8,000,000 meters (26,246,666.66666666 feet)
• Notice how the same data (city boundaries in Clark County NV) do not overlay, that is the NAD83 is shifted 8,000,000 meters north of the NAD27 layer
• Conversion from NAD83/27 to Geodetic/Geographic
• Central Meridian (Longitude)
• Notes from Earl F. Burkholder, PS, PE with Global COGO, Inc., Las Cruces NM 88003
• Central Meridian (Longitude) is a north/south line and secant lines in a transverse Mercator projection are parallel to the central meridian. Problem is Longitude lines are not parallel because the all converge at the poles.
• The easting of a secant line will vary slightly from the south end of the state to the north end.
• secant line in state plane coordinates is always a constant distance from the central meridian.
• UTM

#### How to draw the SPCS origin

• Step 1: Identify the SPCS Defining Parameters
• If you have ArcGIS installed on your computer, view the projection file (.prg)
• Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, Appendix F (and definitions on p. 586) U.S. State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters
• Step 2: Create a shapefile using WGS84 geographic coordinates (e.g. GCS_WGS_1984)
• Use ArcCatalog to create a new shapefile. Assign it the GCS_WGS_1984 projection
• Step 3: create gratitcules
• Using an ArcMap edit session, add the line features using Absolute X,Y to enter the latitude and longitude values

#### Scale Factors

• scale factors move distances from the stateplane grid to the ellipsoid
• "After a distance has been reduced to its ellipsoidal equivalent, it must then be scaled to its grid equivalent. This is accomplished by multiplying the ellipsoidal length of the line by an appropriate scale factor." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Ed, Ghilani and Wolf, p. 599)
• Scale, Elevation, Grid, and Combined Factors Used in Instrumentation. Professional Surveyor Magazine - Feb 2006

### Coordinate Systems (Geographic and Projected) in ArcMap

#### When adding data to ArcMap, will sometimes get a warning message "One or more layers is missing spatial reference information, Data from those layers cannot be projected"

• "If you add a layer that is in a projected coordinate system to ArcMap, and the coordinate system information is missing" will get that message. Much of the time this is not a problem. You can still display and work with this data as long as ArcMap does not need to project it on the fly. ArcMap will not be able, however, to align this data with data in a different coordinate system." [Ormsby 01, p. 340]

#### Map Projections

• Mathematical transformation of a model of the earth's shape (i.e. Oblate Spheroid) to a flat surface (grid). [Ormsby 01, p. 324]
• Can distort shape, area, distance, and direction
• Geographic Coordinates System (GCS)
• based on a curved surface
• Sphere - less accurate approximation of the shape of the earth
• Spheroid - more accurate approximation of the shape of the earth (most widely used)
• Geoid - most accurate model of the shape of the earth
• a measurement of a location on the earth's surface expressed in degrees of latitude and longitude. Tend to have a "taffy-pull appearance" when displaying [Ormsby 01, p. 331]
• GCS includes: angular unit of measure (e.g. degrees), prime meridian (i.e. line of zero longitude which passes through Greenwich England), and a datum (e.g. position of spheroid relative to the center of earth, typically use North American Datum of 1983 a.k.a. NAD83)
• Latitude: horizontal lines (e.g. equator) and also known as parallels. Measurement values range from -90 to 90 degrees
• Longitude: vertical lines, also known as merdians. Measurement values range from -180 to 180 degrees.
• Degrees - 1/360th of a cirle
• Minutes - 1/60th of a degree, or 60 minutes = 1 degree
• Seconds - 1/60th of a minute, or 60 seconds = 1 minute
• See ESRI Virutal Campus - Learning ArcGIS 9, Module 3 for more details
• Projected Coordinates
• based on a flat surface
• does NOT use spheriods, spheres, or geoids since these are approximations of the shape of the earth
• also known as planar coordinates
• a measurement of a location on the earth's surface expressed in a two-dimensional system that locates features based on their distance from an origin (0,0) along two axes.
• Map projections transform latitude and longitude to x,y coordinates in a projected coordinate system.
• Latitude and Longitude can located exact locations on the earth, but no uniform units of measurement (see figure on [Ormsby 01, p. 326])
• If all your GIS data is using the same coordinate system, don't have to worry about projections
• Empty data frames inherit the projection of the first layer added to it. [Ormsby 01, p. 333]
• On-the-fly Projections, [Ormsby 01, p. 328, 336]
• ArcMap determines if the coordinate system is geographic or projected by comparing the coordinates. Lat/Long values will be in the tens (Lat=36 degrees) and hundreds (Long=-115 degrees), where as Stateplane coordinates hundred thousand (e.g. x=800,000) and tens of million (y=26,750,000)[Ormsby 01, p. 340]
• On-the-fly projections are less mathematically rigorous than permanent projections done using the ArcToolbox Projection Wizard. [Ormsby 01, p. 330]
• On-the-fly projections are defined by the Layer Properties. Note this doesn't change the actual file. Projection only applied to data frame. [Ormsby 01, p. 330]
• "... a coordinate system is a framework for locating features on the earth's surface using either latitude-longitude or x,y values."
• Works well when the data has the same geographic coordinate system (GCS). [Ormsby 01, p. 329]
• To transform the coordinate location of a CAD file using coordinate values in ArcMap, see ESRI Article Number 20860
• Projection info is assigned to the feature dataset, not the geodatabase. Note all feature classes in a feature dataset must have the same projection. Doesn't appear that all feature datasets need to have the same projection in a geodatabase. Remember a feature class can be contained in a feature dataset, which will ensure it has the same projection info, or can be a standalone feature class.
• ESRI software does not support vertical datums. Only reads the z-value as is, you must perform any pre-processing/corrections to the vertical data before entering into ArcGIS. Appears the projection metadata doesn't allow you to enter any additional z-value related data (for example NAVD88 datum, elevation units of feet, and so on).fs

#### How to Project Geodatabases and Shapefiles

• Projections in ArcMap
• Can project the data frame, not the actual feature class, shapefile, or coverage.
• Can export the layer with the same projection as the data frame, so in a sense your actually reprojecting the layer.
• ArcMap will not project data on the fly if the coordinate system for the data set has not been defined.
• Additional info, see ESRI Article ID 24893, How to identify an unknown coordinate system using ArcMap.
• ESRI Article ID 20837, how to align vector data in ArcMap
• Projections in ArcCatalog
• Can only define a projection for a layer, not reproject it.
• Data frame will inherit the projection of the first layer added to it.
• ArcCatalog: select a geodatabase feature, right mouse click to bring up the context menu, Properties -> Fields tab, select Shape, then at the bottom of that window, click the ellispe (...) and either Select or Import.
• Projections in ArcToolbox
• Will reproject the layer permentently
• ArcToolbox: Data Management -> Projections -> Project Wizard (shapefiles, geodatabase)
• Reference: see ESRI Article ID 21447 how to project shapefiles or geodatabase feature classes with the ArcToolbox Project wizard

#### Define a Shapefile's Projection

• Using ArcCatalog
• Problem: metadata, spatial reference property says "unknown" or "assumed geographic" projection.
• File -> Properties -> Fields tab: click Shape column. In Properties list below, select ellipses button to open the Spatial Reference Properties window. Click Select... button. Browse through Projected Coordinate Systems folder -> State Plane folder -> NAD 1983 (Feet) folder -> NAD 1983 StatePlane Nevada East FIPS 2701 (Feet).prj
• Metadata should now say the projected coordinate system name.
• Shapefile's coordinate system parameters are stored in the same location and name as the shapefile but with a .prj extension
• see ArcGIS Desktop Help -> ArcCatalog -> Working with shapefiles -> Defining a shapefile's coordinate system
• Using ArcToolbox
• ArcToolbox -> Data Management Tools -> Projections -> Define Projection Wizard (shapefiles, geodatabase). Then give same inputs as the "Using ArcCatalog" solution above.
• see [Ormsby 01, p. 341-346]

#### Common Coordinate Systems used in Clark County NV

• StatePlane Coordinate System (SPCS)
• Projection used by local agencies (e.g. Clark County, City of Las Vegas, Henderson, North Las Vegas, and so on)
• Map of all Stateplane coordinate zones is included with ArcMap, depending upon where you installed the program, c:\arcgis\arcexe83\Reference Systems\usstpln83.shp or C:\Program Files\ArcGIS\Reference Systems\usstpln83.shp (download shapefiles from UNLV, usstpln83.zip - Geographic Coordinate System - GCS_WGS_1984)
• Clark County uses StatePlane Coordinate- Nevada East Zone (NV-E)
• ArcGIS Resource Center - view of USSTPLN83.shp
• Universal Transverse Mercator, UTM
• Earth is divided into 60 zones (each zone 6 degrees of longitude)
• Origin for each zone is the Equator and its central meridian (3 degrees west and 3 degrees east). To eliminate negative coordinates, a false easting of 500,000 is applied
• Typically used for statewide datasets
• Map of all UTM zones is included with ArcMap, depending upon where you installed the program, c:\arcgis\arcexe83\Reference Systems\utm.shp or c:\Program Files\ArcGIS\Reference Systems\utm.shp (download shapefiles from UNLV, utm.zip - Geographic Coordinate System - GCS_WGS_1984) and overlay with the USA Counties Layer countyp020.zip from the National Atlas
• Best way to show two datasets that are in different UTM zones, is to project one into the other zone.
• State of Nevada uses UTM Zone 11
• Margaret Maher (mmaher@esri.com) with ESRI Tech Support - specialize in Map Projections and Symbology
• Local/Surface Coordinates
• Used extensively for small development projects by surveyors
• referred to as ground distances by surveyors
• different origin for each design project
• To project into another coordinate system, need 2 points and have coordinate values in both systems.

#### Define Local/Surface Coordinate Projection in ArcMap

• Objective is to create a projection file so ArcMap can project on the fly from local/surface coordinates to stateplance coordinates. The projection file (.prj) will be similar to a shapefile file .prj file but for the AutoCAD .dwg, example anyfilename.dwg and anyfilename.prj (note cannot have any spaces in the filename for the .dwg and .prj files). Then ArcMap will automatically project the dwg.
• Most difficult step is determining the local/surface coordinate parameters
• ArcMap Data Frame Properties -> New -> Projected Coordinate System
• Projection name cannot contain spaces
• Custom Projection File options for 7 local/surface projections
• Local
• Parameters
• False_Easting
• False_Northing
• Scale_Factor
• Azimuth
• Longitude_Of_Center
• Latitude_Of_Center
• Linear Unit = Foot_US
• Datum is defined by Select... button under Geographic Coordinate System, select North America folder
• North American Datum 1983.prj
• North American 1983 HARN.prj (use if survey done to HARN accuracy)
• North American 1983 (CSRS98).prj is for Canada
• Hotine_Oblique_Mercator_Azimuth_Center
• Hotine_Oblique_Mercator_Azimuth_Natural
• Hotine_Oblique_Mercator_Two_Point_Center
• Hotine_Oblique_Mercator_Two_Point_Natural
• Rectified_Skew_Orthomorphic_Center
• Rectified_Skew_Orthomorphic_Natural_O (has a rotation parameter)
• Alternative method is to Define a Projection using ArcToolbox

## Trimble Survey Controller - Software

#### Trimble Survey Controller - Geoid Model

• "The geoid is a surface of constant gravitational potential that approximates mean sea level. A geoid model or Geoid Grid file (*.ggf) is a table of geoid-ellipsoid separations that is used with the GNSS ellipsoid height observations to provide an estimate of elevation. The geoid-ellipsoid separation value (N) is obtained from the geoid model and is subtracted from the ellipsoid height (H) for a particular point. The elevation (h) of the point above mean sea level (the geoid) is the result. Note - For correct results, the ellipsoid height (H) must be based on the WGS-84 ellipsoid." ( Trimble Survey Controller HELP version 12.46, January 2010, p. 443-4)

#### Files

• Used to create the job files

#### Survey

• FastStatic...
• PPK...
• RTK...
• requires a radio link or cell phone wireless card between the transmitter at the base station and the receiver at the rover, and they both must be tuned to the same frequency. (GPS for Land Surveyor 2nd Edition by Jan Van Sickle, p. 230)
• GPS Base stations in Las Vegas Valley
• Requires a firmware update to the GPS receiver at the rover to enter the frequencies of the base stations.
• Can only get to one base station at a time
• It is best if the base station is within line of sight of the rovers.
• "RTK is at its best when the distance between the base station and the rovers is less than 20 km, under most circumstances, but even before that limit is reached the radio data link can be troublesome." (GPS for Land Surveyor 2nd Edition by Jan Van Sickle, p. 231)
• RTK & infill...

## GPS Survey

#### Tripod and Pole-Mounted Antenna Considerations

• "GPS antennas can be mounted directly to tripods via optical plummet-equiped tribrachs. All static survey occupations and base station occupations for all other types of GPS surveys require the use of a tripod. Care must be taken to center the antenna precisely and to measure the Antenna Reference Height (ARH) precisely.... The measured ARH (corrected or uncorrected) is entered into the receiver. When a lock has been established to the satellites, a message is displayed on the receiver display, and observations begin. If the ARH cannot be measured directly, then slant heights are measured. Some agencies measure in two or three slant locations and average the results. The vertical height can be computed using the Pythagorean theorem: ARH = √(slant height2 - antenna radius2)" (Surveying Principles and Applications, 8th Edition by Barry Kavanagh, p. 265-6)

#### GPS Survey Planning

• GPS Field Notes
• Date of observations (year, month, day and Julian day number)
• Session identification
• Station identification (name and number as provided by the project authority)
• Serial numbers of receiver, antenna and data logger
• Height of antenna phase center above the marker (to 1 mm) and all measurements taken to derive that height (a sketch depicting the procedure is also recommended)
• Antenna offset from marker, if any (distance and azimuth)
• Starting and ending time (UTC) of observations
• General weather condition and changes, if any during the session
• Detailed meteorological observations, if required
• All problems or unusual behavior with equipment or satellite tracking
• An obstruction diagram, showing any obstructions at elevations greater than 15° as seen from the antenna location, may also be added to the field log.
• Guidelines and Specifications for GPS Surveys, p. 12
• GPS Field Log
• Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP)
• "GDOP of 7 or below is usually considered suitable for positioning - a value of 5 or lower is ideal." (Surveying Principles and Applications, 8th Edition by Barry Kavanagh, p. 260)

### Kinematic GPS Methods

• "...a kinematic survey requires two receivers collecting observations simultaneously from a pair of stations with one receiver: the base, occupying a station of known position, and the rover collecting data on points of interest." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 391)

#### Real Time Kinematic (RTK)

• "Kinematic Surveys. As the name implies, during kinematic surveys one receiver, the rover, can be in continuous motion. This is the most productive of the GPS surveys, but is also the least accurate. The accuracy of a kinematic GPS survey is typically in the range of ±(1 to 2 cm + 2 ppm). This accuracy is sufficient for many types of surveys and thus is the most common method of surveying. Kinematic GPS is applicable for any type of survey that requires many points to be located, which makes it very appropriate for most topographic and construction surveys. It is also excellent for dynamic types of surveying, that is, where the observation station is in motion. The range of a kinematic survey is typically limited to the broadcast range of the base radio. However, real-time networks have made kinematic surveys possible over large regions." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 363)
• "The method of choice for a centimetre-accuracy site survey is RTK (Real Time Kinematic). RTK involves the use of 2 GPS receivers (stationary Base Station and a Rover) communicating together via a radio link. The base station must be located such that it will have a clear view of the sky and a continuous line-of-sight to the rover. The precision of the Rover position relative to the Base station is dependant on baseline-length so it is desirable to keep the baseline as short as possible (<10 km)." (Canadian Spatial Reference System - Site Survey using RTK)
• "Real-time differential surveys. Also known as real-time kinematic (RTK). Accuracies: 1 to 2 cm. Requires a base receiver occupying a known station, which then radio-transmits error corrections to any number of roving receivers, thus permitting them to perform data gathering and layout surveys in real time. All required software is on board the roving receivers. Dual-frequency receivers permit on-the-fly (OTF) reinitialization after loss of lock. Baselines are restricted to about 10 km. Five satellites are required. This, or similar techniques, is without doubt the future for many engineering surveys." (Surveying Principles and Applications, 8th Edition by Barry Kavanagh, p. 282)
• "For kinematic surveys, PDOP values should be less than four. Additionally, since high free electron counts in the ionosphere can affect GPS signals greatly, it is important to collect data only during periods of low solar activity. During periods of high solar activity, poor positioning results can be obtained with GPS. NOAA provides daily, three-day, and weekly forecasts of the space weather. In particular, GPS users should monitor the k-index values. GPS surveys should not be performed when the k-index is greater than 4. Both high PDOP values and high solar activity periods can be avoided with careful project planning." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 396)
• Never do an RTK survey in float mode, always do an RTK survey in fixed mode

#### RTK - Community Base Stations

• Base radio mode: TT450s at 9600 bps
• "In North America and in other areas of the world, frequencies in the range of 150-174 MHz in the VHF radio spectrum, and from 450-470 MHz in the UHF radio spectrum, can be used for RTK transmissions. Typically, the messages are updated at the rover every 0.5-2 seconds. The data link for RTK requires a minimum of 2400 baud or higher for operation. However, it is typically much higher with a baud rate of typically 38,400." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 396)
• "The radio link used with RTK can limit the distance between the base receiver and rover(s) to under 10 km, or about 6 mi. As shown in Figure 15.4, this distance can be increased with more powerful transmitters, or through the use of repeater stations. A repeater station receives the signal from a transmitter such as the base radio and re-transmits it.... With low-power radios, line-of-sight between the transmitter and receiver is required." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 397)
• "In areas where cellular coverage is available, data modems can also be used to broadcast data from the base receiver to the rover." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 397)

Base Station Name 450 MHz UHF Band Radio Frequency Location Contact
City of Henderson 453.2250 Water Street - Henderson City of Henderson Department of Public Works - Survey Division, Brian Witzel voice: 267-1316
CNLV Ft Sumter 453.5250 Cheyenne-Eastern contact Gary M. Hancock, PLS (hancockg@cityofnorthlasvegas.com) 633-1310 to request, he downloads monthly from basestation and know what days can get RINEX or Trimble format index both on the same frequence, index 1 is CNLV Ft Sumter (max 500 watts) and index 2 is Deer Springs (is only 30 watts, more local) City of North Las Vegas Department of Public Works, Survey Division
CNLV Deer Springs 453.5250 453.5500 Decatur-Elkhorn contact Gary M. Hancock, PLS (hancockg@cityofnorthlasvegas.com) 633-1310 to request, he downloads monthly from basestation and know what days can get RINEX or Trimble format index both on the same frequence, index 1 is CNLV Ft Sumter (max 500 watts) and index 2 is Deer Springs (is only 30 watts, more local)
CCWRD 453.8250 Sam's Town, Flamingo and Boulder CCWR
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/ccwr/
Clark County 453.9250 Blue Diamond/Rainbow contact Jimmy Marlett, PLS (jmx@co.clark.nv.us, voice: 455-0645) to request a copy of the Trimble .dat file.
Apex 460.1000
Laughlin 460.3000 Laughlin - Big Bend Water District NVLA (LVVWD)
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nvla/
Trop 460.3750 Tropicana and Hualapai NVTP (LVVWD)
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nvtp/
Potosi 460.4250 Mt. Potosi NVPO (LVVWD)
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nvpo/
City of Las Vegas 460.4750 Cheyenne-Buffalo CLV1
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/clv1/
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nvlm/
Carlton Square 465.3000 Cheyenne and Clayton NVCA (LVVWD)
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nvca/
White Pine 465.3500 Spring Valley - Bransford Ranch NVSV(LVVWD)
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nvsv/
Bermuda 465.3750 Henderson Airport, Las Vegas & St. Rose Pkwy NVBM (LVVWD)
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nvbm/
Pioche 465.4250 Pioche - Court House NVPI (LVVWD)
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nvpi/
Alamo   Alamo - Lincoln County NVAL
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nval/
Glendale   Glendale NVGL (LVVWD)
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nvgl/
Searchlight   Searchlight - US95 at SR164 NVSL
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nvsl/
NVPI
ftp://ftp.lvvwd.com/pub/GPS_Data/nvpi/

#### RTK Radio Configuration on Trimble TSC2

• Turn on the Trimble R8 receiver and TSC2 data collector
• Using Survey Controller software application on the TSC2, click the Configuration icon
• Under survey styles, click RTK
• click connect button

#### Post-Process Kinematic (PPK)

• "In post-processed kinematic (PPK) GPS surveys, the collected data is stored on the survey controller or receiver until the fieldwork is completed. The data is then processed in the office using the same software and processing techniques used in static GPS surveys. Data latency is not a problem in PPK surveys since the data is post-processed. Other advantages of PPK surveys are (1) that precise ephemeris can be combined with the observational data to remove errors in the broadcast ephemeris and (2) the base station coordinates can be resolved after the fieldwork is complete. Thus the base station's coordinates do not have to be known prior to the survey. The lack of data latency and use of a precise ephemeris results in a PPK survey having higher accuracies than that obtainable from the same RTK survey." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition, by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 396)
• "...epoch rate for data collection is typically set to 1 sec." (Elementary Surveying, 12th Edition, by Ghilani and Wolf, p. 396)

#### UNLV Survey Points

• Map of survey points on UNLV campus CEE121-MapFieldPoints.pdf and pictures of the points CEE121-PicturesFieldPoints.docx
• Used an assumed bearing of S 86° 45' 00" W for (W4 and W5), (E1-2 and E2-4) and (E2-4 and E2-3)
• Topo point data file of the area on the east side of the engineering building. This is the outcome of a lab exercise to help the students get a feel for collecting data points and preparing surface/topographic contour map. Obtained from Tom Barnes, PLS UNLVTopoLab-22Oct2008-EastsideTBE.txt
• UNLV Campus Topo from AeroTech (2007)
• Standard
• Closed Traverse - measurement of the single and double angles should be within 20" minutes or less. If the off by more than 20" then remeasure the angle
• Linear Error of Closure needs to 1:1500 or better

#### UNLV 2010 Survey Control by TRC

• TRC Party: Darrell Webb, Scott Hill PLS, and Jack Graham

#### UNLV Benchmark

• Brass Cap Stamp
• Title: Mon. B. East
• Elevation = 2021.48 feet
• State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Nevada East Zone NAD27 Units Feet, Area/Zone = 2701
• Northing, N (Y) = 495137.956 feet
• Easting, E (X) = 630828.541 feet
• Conversion from SPCS NV-E NAD27 to Lat/Long:
Latitude (Y)=36°6'34.59307"
Longitude (X)=115°8'25.50516"

#### NGS Calibration Base Lines (CBL)

• Electronic Distances Measuring Instruments (EDMI)
• NGS National Geodetic Information Center - email: Steve.Breidenbach@noaa.gov, voice: 540-373-1243